Off-grid charging hardware market to reach US$16 billion by 2034 with a CAGR of 47.15%

Off-Grid Charging For Electric Vehicles 2024-2034: Technologies, Benchmarking, Players and Forecasts

Off-grid EV charging for public, fleet, and construction. Solar canopy charging, hydrogen generator charging, and airborne wind energy charging benchmarking. Regional grid assessments, market analysis, and 10-year hardware forecasts by demand and revenue.

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This report assesses and benchmarks several technology options for off-grid EV charging and provides in-depth market coverage and interviews of a range of players in this rapidly growing industry. As BEV uptake increases, utility grids are becoming increasingly strained, leading to growing concerns about the capacity of distribution networks being able to support the necessary roll-out of EV charging infrastructure. Additionally, the expansion of electrification in new sectors such as construction presents unique challenges and opportunities in charging requirements. To address these issues, grid-independent charging systems are being developed and deployed, and IDTechEx's report contains extensive coverage and analysis of technology and players.
Off-grid: Battery and Renewables Integration
One of the key aspects of any renewables-based charging is dealing with the problem of intermittency (wind and solar in particular). This is usually done via integrating an on-site battery, which increases the energy capacity of the system and thus possible charging rates. This can be extended into hybrid systems, where energy can be distributed back to the grid in times of excess generation, or when the charging requirements increase the power that can be drawn from the grid.
Photovoltaic Canopies and Hydrogen Generators are the renewables of choice
A wide range of fully off-grid and hybrid solutions are emerging to the market, powered by a range of energy sources. Solar canopy chargers are currently the most mature market and offer 100% renewable electricity without any infrastructure required. Hydrogen fuel cell technology is increasingly prevalent in distributed generation and is seen by many advocates as a green alternative to polluting and carbon-intensive diesel generators. Hydrogen generators offer temporary and high-powered outputs, which IDTechEx believes offers strong value propositions to the growing numbers of electric construction vehicles.
Alternative Energy Sources - AWE, LNG and beyond
IDTechEx's report also covers a range of alternative energy sources, such as airborne wind energy (AWE), conventional wind, and fossil fuels. IDTechEx benchmarking assesses the relative strengths and weaknesses of each technology within this report, considering aspects such as power per unit area, OPEX, CAPEX, complexity of installation, stability of power and more. The results of this analysis are disseminated in this report.
End Use Sectors - Construction and Fleet
IDTechEx research indicates that fleet operators seeking to electrify their vehicles are facing increasing challenges in sourcing sufficient electrical power to fuel their operations. This problem is often exacerbated by the lack of available infrastructure in their depts - put simply, these locations were never built to require electricity to charge vehicles. Grid upgrades are also slow and prohibitively expensive, with the average wait time to get a grid connection in the US approaching 4 years. As net-zero targets get stricter and the push for electrification grows, infrastructure is expected to be required much quicker than the grid can be built out. In this context, off-grid charging presents itself as a strong candidate for supplying this power without having to resort to carbon-intensive diesel generators. Powering BEVs with diesel is not only inefficient but potentially damaging to the EV reputation as a cleaner alternative to ICEs. In most cases grid electricity will always be cheaper and more stable than on-site renewable generation, however hybridized integration of a range of energy sources can 'augment' the existing grid connection. A common example IDTechEx encountered in its research was fleet and public highway operators how had a limited grid connection but wished to enable faster and more outlets. A grid upgrade can take up to several years, but integration of hybrid charging systems can provide the necessary power boost, potentially on a temporary basis whilst improvement works are carried out. This has applications for mission critical fleets, who wish to be insulated from potential power outages. By charging from a combination of grid power, renewables charged batteries, and an emergency fuel-cell, energy security can be enhanced.
As construction goes electric, diesel generators are phased out
IDTechEx identifies the electrification of the construction industry as a key opportunity for off-grid charging hardware. The larger and more powerful vehicles will require large quantities of electrical energy, and high-power outputs to charge quickly and minimize vehicle downtime. As construction sites are by their nature often in undeveloped areas, sourcing grid power is likely to be a challenge, especially as the temporary nature of these sites negates the value of building out grid capacity. In this context, hydrogen generator units offer a combination of high-power outputs, temporary installation and scalable amounts of fuel. Diesel generators also emit noise and particulate pollution (NOx), and it is expected that regulations, especially in urban areas will become tougher. IDTechEx therefore expects there to be a significant opportunity for off-grid charging to emerge as the choice solution for electric construction vehicles.
This report provides technical analysis and business intelligence about the emerging off-grid EV charging market. This includes:
A review of the context of off-grid EV charging, an ageing and strained utility grid
Assessment of the state of utility grids by key regions, including market players and key supply constraints. An assessment of the likely impacts of BEV uptake, as well as current and proposed grid load management strategies.
Grid component upgrade timelines, annual expenditure in grid growth by region.
Technical analysis and benchmarking of key off-grid technologies, solar hydrogen and wind
Player coverage including Beam Global, Paired Power, AFC Energy, GeoPura, GenCell, KitePower and many more.
In depth independent technical assessment of relative strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the differing solutions. Considerations include installation size and complexity, CAPEX, OPEX, stability, green credentials and other parameters.
Granular 10-year forecasts by sector and region
In-depth and granular forecasts across various end-use sectors including construction, fleet operators, and public. Regional resolution includes key regions such as Europe (further breakdowns included), USA, China and RoW. Unit installations, market revenues, and hydrogen requirements in Mtpa over 10 years.
Report MetricsDetails
Historic Data2021 - 2024
CAGRThe global off-grid charging market will reach USD 16.6 billion by 2034, with a CAGR of 47.1%.
Forecast Period2024 - 2034
Forecast UnitsUnits, US$, Mtpa
Regions CoveredWorldwide
Segments CoveredSolar Canopy Chargers, Hydrogen Fuel Cell Power Generators.
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Table of Contents
1.1.Executive Summary (1)
1.2.Executive Summary (2)
1.3.Overview of Charging Levels
1.4.BEV Charging and the Grid
1.5.Off-Grid EV Charging - Multiple Motivations
1.6.Off-Grid Charging - Key Components
1.7.Off-Grid vs Grid-Tied Charging
1.8.Categorization of Off-Grid Solutions
1.9.Generation Landscape - Off-grid Operation
1.10.Definitions - Off-grid vs Mobile
1.11.Generation Landscape - Power Production
1.12.Comparison of Off-Grid Charging Technologies
1.13.Off-Grid Charging Market Landscape - Technological Overview
1.14.Hydrogen EV Generator - Has a Range of Power Outputs
1.15.Long Term Outlook - Grid Improvement & Smart Charging
1.16.Electric Mobility Sectors - Medium & Long Term Outlook
1.17.Comparison Benchmarking - Installation Area vs Peak Power Output
1.18.AWE, Solar, Hydrogen EV Charging Key Metrics
1.19.Key EV Charging Segments
1.20.Solar Canopy Uptake is Quickest, but Growth Set to Plateau
1.21.Off-Grid Charging Market Dominated by Hydrogen in 2034
1.22.AWE Outlook Remains Niche and Small
2.1.1.Electrical Grid - Summary
2.1.2.The Electrical Grid - Generation, Transmission & Distribution
2.1.3.The Electrical Grid
2.1.4.Aging Grid
2.1.5.Electrification of Vehicles Presents a Challenge
2.1.6.Grid Fragility Under MW Loads
2.1.7.Investment in Grids Across US, China, Europe & OECD
2.1.8.Lengthy Grid Construction Lead Times
2.1.9.Grid Supply Chain
2.1.10.High Voltage Transmission - AC or DC
2.1.11.Utility Grid Transmission and Distribution Market Landscape
2.1.12.Utility Grid Transformers Market Landscape
2.2.Grid Regional Breakdown
2.2.1.Regional Disparity in Utility Grids
2.2.2.US Grid
2.2.3.US Electricity Demand
2.2.4.US Grid - Natural Disasters, Extreme Weather
2.2.5.United Kingdom - The National grid
2.2.6.South Africa - Insecure Power
2.2.7.South Africa - AEVERSA
2.2.8.China - Rapid Growth
2.2.9.China - Decentralised Power Generation
2.2.10.China - EV Electrical Usage
2.2.11.China - Grid Outlook vs 230V - An Emerging Issue for DCFC
2.2.13.Solutions to Grid Challenges
2.2.14.EV Realty - Maximising the Grid
2.2.15.EPRI - Predicting Future Grid Requirements from Data
3.1.Solar Canopy Overview
3.1.1.Solar Canopy Charging - Summary
3.1.2.Solar Powered EV Charging
3.1.3.Solar for Off-Grid Charging
3.1.4.Photovoltaics and EV Charging
3.1.5.Solar Charging for Different markets
3.1.6.Urban Solar Charging
3.1.7.Rural Charging Networks
3.1.8.Solar Charger - Definitions
3.1.9.Key Components and Areas of Differentiation
3.2.Photovoltaic Cell
3.2.1.Principles of Operation
3.2.2.PV technologies Generation Cells dominant
3.2.4.Monocrystalline Si
3.2.5.Polycrystalline Si
3.2.6.Monocrystalline vs Polycrystalline
3.3.PV Supply Chain
3.3.1.PV Supply Chain
3.3.2.Global Market for PV - China Leads
3.3.3.Supply Chains
3.4.PV Developments - Tracking, Inverters and Bifacials
3.4.1.Angle of Misalignment and Power Loss
3.4.2.Solar Tracking Methods
3.4.3.Single Axis Trackers
3.4.4.Dual-Axis Trackers
3.4.5.Quantifying the Loss
3.4.6.Bifacial Photovoltaics
3.4.7.Bifacial Photovoltaics
3.4.8.Albedo and Yield
3.4.10.Key Types of Inverter
3.4.11.Inverters - a Comparison
3.4.12.Inverter Market Share
3.4.13.Yotta Microinverter and Leaf
3.5.Current Market Landscape
3.5.1.Comparison of current solar canopies
3.5.2.Beam Global
3.5.3.Beam Global - EV ARC
3.5.4.Beam Global - DC charging
3.5.5.Beam Global - Not Limited to Solar
3.5.6.Beam Global - Extensive Sales to US GOVT
3.5.7.Beam Global - SWOT Analysis
3.5.8.Paired Power - Bifacials & No Solar Tracker
3.5.9.Yotta Energy - REV
3.5.10.Aterno PowerPark - Non-Battery Solution
3.5.11.COSTCO - Case Study
3.5.12.NRMA - Solar Diesel Hybrid Solution?
3.5.13.Off-Grid Electric Boat Charging
3.6.Solar Canopy Analysis
3.6.1.Solar Canopy - Cost Breakdown (1)
3.6.2.Solar Canopy - Cost Breakdown (2)
3.6.3.Solar Canopy - Cost Breakdown (3)
3.6.4.Solar - Area Requirements
3.6.5.Solar - Output and Area
3.6.6.Solar Canopy Economics - Not Cost Competitive
3.6.7.Electrify America - A Change in Strategy
3.6.8.Tracking vs Bifacial - Efficiency Gains
3.6.9.Solar Canopy Charging - Timeline
3.7.Solar Beyond Canopies
3.7.1.Red Sea Global - Large Scale Off-Grid Charging
3.8.Solar Canopy Regional Uptake
3.8.1.Global Solar Potential
3.8.2.Global Solar Potential vs Uptake
3.8.3.Solar Uptake in Europe
3.8.4.China - 2023 Surge in Photovoltaics Installations
3.8.5.China - Utility Scale vs Distributed Generation
3.8.6.USA - Strong Solar Canopy Fleet sales
3.8.7.Solar Canopy EV Charger Uptake - Sectors & Regions
3.8.8.Uptake by Region - Solar
3.8.9.Solar Canopies - Summary
4.1.Hydrogen Introduction
4.1.1.Hydrogen EV Charging - Summary
4.1.2.Hydrogen Charging vs Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles
4.1.3.Hydrogen Charging with Integrated Battery
4.1.4.Hydrogen EV Charging - Key Qualities
4.2.Hydrogen Economy Overview
4.2.1.Hydrogen Economy - Production & Transport
4.2.2.Hydrogen economy and its key components
4.2.3.The Colors of Hydrogen
4.2.4.The Colors of Hydrogen (2)
4.2.5.State of the hydrogen industry
4.2.6.Energy density of hydrogen
4.2.7.Transporting Hydrogen
4.3.Fuel - Emissions & Costs
4.3.1.Hydrogen - Emissions & Costs
4.3.2.Inefficiencies of RTE with H2
4.3.3.Fuel Densities
4.3.4.Passenger Car CO2 Emissions: Hydrogen Charging, BEV & ICE Europe
4.3.5.Passenger Car CO2 Emissions: Hydrogen Charging, BEV & ICE China
4.3.6.CO2 Emission from Electricity Generation
4.3.7.Cost of hydrogen at the pump (1/2)
4.3.8.Cost of hydrogen at the pump (2/2)
4.3.9.Hydrogen vs Grid Charging Costs
4.3.10.Fuel Cost Comparison per kWh of Propulsion in Norway
4.3.11.The Challenge: Green Hydrogen Cost Reduction
4.3.12.Ammonia as a Carrier Fuel For H2
4.4.Fuel Cell Technologies Overview
4.4.1.Introduction to fuel cells
4.4.2.Comparison of fuel cell technologies
4.4.3.Overview of fuel cell technologies
4.4.4.Fuel Cell Choice - AFC and PEM lead
4.4.5.Drivers for H2 use in EV Charging
4.4.6.Fuel Cells For EV Charging - Two Implementations
4.5.Hydrogen Generator Landscape
4.5.1.Hydrogen Generator Market Players
4.5.2.Hydrogen Fuel Cell Generators - Choice of Fuel Cell
4.5.3.AFC Energy - Fuel Cell Technology for Temporary Power
4.5.4.AFC Energy - Ammonia as a carrier fuel
4.5.5.AFC Energy - Euston HS2 Site
4.5.6.GeoPura - Strong Financial and Technical Backing
4.5.7.GeoPura - EaaS
4.5.8.GeoPura - The Hydrogen Power Unit
4.5.9.GeoPura - Case Studies
4.5.10.GenCell - Overview
4.5.11.GenCell - Key Markets
4.5.12.GenCell - Platinum Free Catalyst
4.5.13.GenCell - Ammonia Cracking
4.5.14.GenCell - EVOX Targets DC Charging and Energy Security
4.5.15.GM Hydrotec PowerCube - Mobile DC Fast Charging
4.5.16.Hitachi Energy - HyFlex Hydrogen Generator
4.6.Hydrogen Charger Uptake
4.6.1.Hydrogen EV Charger Uptake - Sectors & Regions
4.6.2.Uptake by Sector - Hydrogen
4.6.3.Uptake by Region - Hydrogen
4.6.4.Hydrogen EV Chargers - Summary
5.1.Wind Power Summary
5.1.1.Wind Charging - Summary
5.1.2.Wind Power - an Overview
5.2.1.Wind Turbine Average Power Sizes
5.2.2.Wind Turbines - Size and Capacity Increasing
5.2.3.Wind Turbines - Downscaling Issues
5.2.4.Electric Ship Wind Turbine Charging - Damen S7017
5.2.5.Wind Turbines for Fleet Charging, TSG Kempower - Case Study
5.3.Airborne Wind Energy (AWE)
5.3.1.Airborne Wind Energy - Failure of Makani
5.3.2.Technological Landscape - Classifications of System
5.3.3.Technological Landscape - Examples
5.3.4.AWE Value Proposition - Faster & More Consistent Speeds
5.3.5.AWE Technology Roadmap to Present Day
5.3.6.Airborne Wind Energy - Methods
5.3.7.Pumped Figure of 8
5.3.8.Volkswagen Explores AWE
5.3.10.Issues to Address
5.3.11.Airspace Concerns
5.3.12.AWE - Outlook
5.3.13.Outlook for Wind in Off-Grid EV Charging
6.1.1.Diesel, RNG, LNG
6.1.2.Larson Electronics - Propane Charging
6.1.3.L-Charge - Portable LNG Charger
6.1.4.Microturbines - an Overview
6.1.5.Capstone Engineering - EV Charging
6.1.6.BioCharger - Wood Burning EV Charging
7.1.1.Technology Benchmarking Overview
7.1.2.Comparison Benchmarking - Installation Area vs Peak Power Output
7.1.3.Power Output - Hydrogen Emerges on Top
7.1.4.Comparison Benchmarking - Price
7.1.5.Price per kW - Hardware Comparison
7.1.6.Cost - AWE is the Most Expensive Option Outright and per kW.
7.1.7.Green Credentials - Hydrogen Depends on Fuel Source
7.1.8.Intermittency - Solar is the Least Stable
7.1.9.AWE, Solar, Hydrogen EV Benchmarking Summary
8.1.Methodology Overview
8.1.1.Forecast Methodology
8.1.2.Forecast Assumptions
8.2.Solar Canopy Charger Forecast
8.2.1.Solar Canopy Chargers - Introduction
8.2.2.Solar Canopy Forecasts - Public & Fleet
8.2.3.Solar Canopy Forecasts - Public Installations
8.2.4.Solar Canopy Forecasts - Fleet Installations
8.2.5.Solar Canopy Forecasts - Installation Base
8.2.6.Solar Canopy Forecast - Market Value
8.3.Hydrogen EV Charger Forecast
8.3.1.Hydrogen EV Charger Forecasts - Introduction
8.3.2.Hydrogen EV Charger - Power Splits
8.3.3.Hydrogen EV Charger - Charging Requirements
8.3.4.Hydrogen EV Charger - Unit Deployment Forecasts
8.3.5.Hydrogen EV Charger - Market Value Forecasts
8.3.6.Hydrogen EV Charger - Sector Forecasts
8.3.7.Hydrogen EV Charger - Regional Forecasts
8.3.8.Hydrogen Demand - Construction
8.3.9.Hydrogen EV Charger Forecast - Summary
8.4.Off-Grid Charging Forecast
8.4.1.Off-Grid Charging Outlook - $16 Billion Market within 10 years

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Off-Grid Charging For Electric Vehicles 2024-2034: Technologies, Benchmarking, Players and Forecasts

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Report Statistics

Slides 254
Forecasts to 2034
Published Mar 2024
ISBN 9781835700259

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