Medical, fitness and wellness uses will drive the wearable sensors market to over US$7bn by 2033.

Wearable Sensors 2023-2033

Covering technologies such as motion sensors, optical sensors, chemical sensors, pressure sensors, strain sensors and electrodes for applications including continuous health monitoring, fitness tracking and augmented/virtual reality.

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Report Overview and Market Forecasts
This report provides insight into how wearable sensors could be integrated into society long term - the technology underpinning value within the trend towards 'the quantified self'. The main drivers for growth identified are digital health and remote patient monitoring, extended reality, and the metaverse and performance analytics of athletes and sports people.
Key questions answered in this report include:
  • What is the current and future market size of each wearable sensor type?
  • What are the strengths and weaknesses of each wearable sensor technology?
  • What is the technological and commercial readiness of each wearable sensor technology for each application?
  • What are the fundamental operating principles of each sensor type?
  • Who are the key players in each sensor type, and what are their plans?
  • What are the promising innovation opportunities and application areas?
  • How are macroscopic trends influencing the wearable sensor market?
IDTechEx's research in wearables tracks the progress of over 50 wearable electronic product types. Within each of these products, a key focus of the research has been understanding and characterizing the prevalence of sensor types integrated into each. This report looks at the key sensor components in each of these wearable product categories, focusing on 12 different sensor types. The combination of detailed wearable product forecasting and understanding of the sensor landscape and suppliers enables very detailed forecasting for wearable sensors, in terms of revenue, pricing, and volume, with historic data from 2010 to present, and forecasts from 2023-2033.
More people than ever before are turning to wearable sensors to monitor their activity levels. Despite its origin in simple step counting, the market for wearable sensors is expanding into the more complex arena of health monitoring. Innovations in wearable sensor technology are expanding the envelope of biometrics accessible through watches and skin patches, addressing the rising demand for remote patient monitoring and decentralized clinical trials but also increasing consumer expectations. This includes easier access to health data, and extends further to sensor integration into headsets and accessories for immersive AR/VR experiences.
Not all wearable sensor technology is made equal and distinguishing between hype and reality is an increasing challenge for stakeholders. This report breaks down the complex landscape of sensor types and biometrics and form factors. It covers sensor types including inertial measurement units, optical sensors, and chemical sensors for vital signs, stress, sleep, and even brain activity. IDTechEx highlights the key opportunities and challenges for each sensor type to achieve commercial success across the next ten years.
Motion sensors finding applications beyond step counting
Motion sensing hardware is well established, with accelerometers integrated into almost every wearable. Therefore, as profit margins for manufacturers diminish with commoditization, expanding the application space is crucial to maintain growth. This report provides an outlook for emerging use cases such as health insurance rewards, clinical trials, and professional athlete monitoring. Key MEMs manufacturers are compared, including company profiles based on interviews.
Optical sensors seeking to go further than heart-rate detection
Smart-watch wearers are familiar with the red and green lights on the back of their devices, used to obtain heart-rate data or blood oxygen and further analyzed for insights into calorie burn, VO2 max, and sleep quality.
Sensor developers are interested in pushing the boundaries of what can be measured non-invasively with light - whether it be through new software to analyze photoplethysmography (PPG) signals or new hardware for spectroscopy. Multiple companies are competing to lead in the commercialization of wearable blood pressure, with others setting their sights on ambitious 'clinic on the wrist' devices to replace common hospital tests and even glucose monitoring. This report appraises the potential for optical sensors, and overviews challenges for calibration requirements and regulatory approval.
Electrodes enable monitoring of the heart, muscle, and brain
Incorporating conductive materials into wearable technology is a simple concept. However, it has led to a vast variety of wearables sensors including wet electrodes stuck on the skin to measure the heart, dry electrodes in headphones to analyze brain signals, and microneedles within skin patches to quantify muscle movements. As such, this also creates a broad application space for electrodes ranging from vital sign monitoring and sleep analysis for healthcare to emotional response and stress monitoring for marketing and productivity. This report dedicates a section to the four key categories of electrodes: wet, dry, microneedle, and electronic skin. This includes a summary of key material and manufacturing requirements.
Chemical sensors offer an alternative to finger pricks
Chemical sensors are increasingly enabling diabetics to monitor their glucose levels without finger pricks. However, commercial devices still require a needle to be inserted below the surface of the skin. As such, the quest for less invasive wearable sensors continues. An overview of the existing market for continuous glucose marketing (CGM) is provided in this report, followed by an analysis of competitor technologies using microneedles and other bodily fluids. This is followed by a dedicated chapter on novel biometrics, assessing the opportunity for chemical sensor developers outside of the diabetes management space - with a focus on hydration, alcohol, and lactate.
Key Aspects
This report provides the following information.
Technology trends & market outlook:
  • Overview of major players
  • SWOT analyses of 15 distinct wearable sensor technologies
  • Roadmaps by sector
  • Summary of manufacturing processes for printed wearable sensors
  • Analysis of the market for novel biometrics including alcohol, hydration, lactate
  • Primary information from key companies, based on interviews and conference attendance.
Overview of emerging markets and drivers:
  • Digital health (remote patient monitoring, clinical trials, and insurance)
  • Extended Reality (XR/VR/AR/MR for gaming, industry, and the metaverse)
  • Non-invasive/Minimally invasive diagnostics (point-of-care testing)
  • Mass digitization and the internet of things
  • Prosumers (wearable adoption by elite athletes and sporting bodies e.g. the premier league and the NFL).
Market Forecasts & Analysis:
10-year market forecasts for accelerometers. gyroscopes, magnetometers, barometers, optical sensors, depth sensors & 3D imaging, electrodes (integrated), electrodes (disposable), force/ pressure/strain sensors, temperature sensors, chemical - Interstitial fluid (glucose), chemical -other body fluids
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Table of Contents
1.1.Interest in wearable health is growing
1.2.Roadmap of wearable sensor technology segmented by key biometrics
1.3.Wearable devices for medical and wellness applications increasingly overlap
1.4.Main health conditions targeted by wearable health technology
1.5.Prosumer demand for wearables can impact trends in the mass market
1.6.New sensors and e-textiles can expand the market for wearable fitness technology
1.7.Wearable motion sensors: Introduction
1.8.Overview of emerging use-cases for wearable motion sensors
1.9.MEMS-based IMUs for wearable motion sensing: SWOT
1.10.Wearable motion sensors: Conclusions
1.11.Wearable optical sensors: Introduction
1.12.Market outlook and technology readiness of wearable blood pressure
1.13.Wearable optical sensors: SWOT
1.14.Optical sensors: conclusions and outlook
1.15.Wearable optical imaging: Introduction
1.16.Optical imaging for wearables: SWOT
1.17.Optical imaging for wearables: key conclusions
1.18.Overview of wearable electrode types
1.19.Wearable electrodes: applications and product types
1.20.Consolidated SWOT of wearable electrodes
1.21.Wearable electrodes: conclusions and outlook
1.22.Wearable force and strain sensing
1.23.Wearable force/pressure sensors: SWOT
1.24.Wearable force/pressure sensors: conclusions and outlook
1.25.SWOT: Wearable strain sensors:
1.26.Conclusions and outlook: Wearable strain sensors
1.27.Wearable temperature sensors
1.28.SWOT: Wearable temperature sensors
1.29.Conclusions and outlook: Wearable temperature sensors
1.30.Wearable chemical sensing
1.31.SWOT: Chemical glucose sensors
1.32.Conclusions and outlook: Chemical wearable sensors for glucose sensing
1.33.Novel biometrics and sensing methods
1.34.Readiness level and market potential: Wearable sensors for novel biometrics
1.35.Conclusions and outlook: Wearable sensors for novel biometrics
2.1.Introduction to wearable sensors
2.2.Wearable technology takes many form factors
2.3.Overview of wearable sensor types
2.4.Connecting form factors, sensors and metrics
2.5.How is wearable sensor data used?
2.6.Definitions of sensors within devices
2.7.Interest in wearable health monitoring is growing
2.8.Can new wearable sensors persuade mass-market consumers to switch brands?
2.9.New sensors and e-textiles can expand the market for wearable fitness technology
2.10.Combining wearable health data with environmental and food-safety: An emerging opportunity
2.11.Trends in wearables for digital health: from node to network
2.12.The health insurance sector expands the market for consumer wearables
2.13.Virtual reality depends on wearable sensors for immersion
2.14.VR headsets revenue forecast reflects growth opportunity for wearable sensors
2.15.Roadmap of wearable sensor technology segmented by key biometrics
3.1.Forecasting: introduction and definitions
3.2.Definitions and categorisation for sensor types
3.3.Sensor revenue - historic data and forecast
3.4.Market share - historic data and forecast
3.5.Sensor volume - historic data and forecast
3.6.Sensor pricing - historic data and forecast
3.7.Sensor revenue - historic data and forecast
3.8.Disposable electrode forecast - volume
3.9.Disposable electrode forecast - revenue
4.1.1.Introduction to wearable motion sensors
4.1.2.Motion Sensors:
4.2.Inertial Measurement Units
4.2.1.Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs): An introduction
4.2.2.MEMS: The manufacturing method for IMUs
4.2.3.IMU packages: MEMs accelerometers
4.2.4.IMU Packages: MEMS Gyroscopes
4.2.5.IMU Packages: magnetometers (digital compasses)
4.2.6.IMU Packages: magnetometer types
4.2.7.IMUs for smart-watches: major players and industry dynamic
4.2.8.Magnetometer suppliers and industry dynamic
4.2.9.Limitations and common errors with MEMS sensors
4.2.10.MEMS IMUs are becoming a commodity
4.2.11.An opportunity for MEMs barometers to expand 3D motion sensing
4.2.12.Accelerometers for hearables - biggest market growth expected for earphones
4.2.13.Opportunity for wearable motion sensors to solve the problem of internal navigation unsolved by GPS
4.2.14.Impact of the chip shortage on MEMS
4.2.15.MEMS-based IMUs for wearable motion sensing: SWOT
4.2.16.MEMS-based IMUs for wearable motion sensing: Outlook
4.3.Motion Sensors: Emerging Applications
4.3.1.Overview of emerging use-cases for wearable motion sensors
4.3.2.Introduction to telemedicine and remote patient monitoring
4.3.3.Motion sensors for remote patient monitoring
4.3.4.Wearable respiratory rate monitoring depends on motion sensors
4.3.5.Opportunities for motion sensors in remote patient monitoring of cancer performance status
4.3.6.Wearable motion sensors play a role in digital physical therapy
4.3.7.Motion capture innovation to influence the future of rehabilitation and the prosumer market
4.3.8.Introduction to wearable activity monitoring in clinical trials
4.3.9.Motion sensors are the most common wearable sensor used within clinical trials
4.3.10.Introduction to motion sensors for virtual reality
4.3.11.Controllers and sensing connect XR devices to the environment and the user vs. 6DoF: what motion can my headset track?
4.3.13.IMU case study: Microsoft's HoloLens 2 and Occulus/Meta
4.3.14.Introduction to wearables for health insurance
4.3.15.Biomarker usage in insurance dominated by motion sensing
4.3.16.Monitoring activity with motion sensors is rewarded through partnerships with a range of service providers
4.3.17.Motion sensor access is crucial across the packages offered by Vitality
4.3.18.Health insurance use of motion sensor data expands the market for consumer smart watches
4.4.Motion Sensors: Conclusions
4.4.1.Wearable motion sensors: Conclusions
4.4.2.Wearable Motion Sensors: Outlook
5.1.1.Optical sensors: introduction
5.1.2.Optical Sensors:
5.2.PPG and Spectroscopy
5.2.1.Sensing principle of photoplethysmography (PPG)
5.2.2.Applications of photoplethysmography (PPG)
5.2.3.Pros and cons of transmission and reflectance modes
5.2.4.Key players in PPG hardware and algorithm development
5.2.5.SWOT: PPG sensors
5.2.6.Introduction to wearable spectroscopy
5.2.7.Near-infrared spectroscopy faces challenges from overlapping bands
5.2.8.Key players and potential customers for wearable spectroscopy as 'clinic on the wrist'
5.2.9.SWOT: Wearable spectroscopy
5.3.Optical Sensors: Heart Rate
5.3.1.How is heart rate obtained from optical PPG sensors?
5.3.2.Wearable heart-rate: Use cases, opportunities and key Players
5.3.3.Comparing the remaining opportunities for wearable heart-rate between insurers, clinicians and consumers
5.3.4.Specific opportunity for integrated heart-rate sensors within the prosumer market
5.3.5.A closer look at wearable heart-rate in clinical trials
5.3.6.Roadmap for wearable optical heart-rate sensors
5.3.7.Wearable heart-rate sensors (optical): conclusions and outlook
5.3.8.Wearable heart-rate sensors (optical): key conclusions
5.4.Optical Sensors: Pulse Oximetry
5.4.1.Obtaining blood oxygen from PPG
5.4.2.Differences in wellness and medical applications of wearable blood oxygen
5.4.3.Early adopters of pulse-oximetry in smart-watches
5.4.4.Impact of COVID-19 on interest in blood oxygen
5.4.5.Blood oxygen contributing to 'in-house' metrics on performance and sleep
5.4.6.Wearable pulse oximetry can offer less invasive monitoring of babies and children
5.4.7.Market outlook and technology readiness of wearable pulse oximeters
5.4.8.Future of pulse oximetry could come in the form of skin patches
5.4.9.Cambridge display technology: Pulse oximetry sensing with OPDs
5.4.10.Wearable blood oxygen sensors: conclusions and SWOT
5.5.Optical Sensors: Blood Pressure
5.5.1.Many health conditions are associated with blood pressure generating a large total addressable market
5.5.2.Classifying blood pressure
5.5.3.Breakdown of wearable brands used for cardiovascular clinical research
5.5.4.How do requirements vary for stakeholders in wearable blood pressure technology
5.5.5.Incumbent sensor technology: blood pressure cuffs and the oscillometric method
5.5.6.Combining pulse metrics to access blood pressure using wearable PPG and ECG
5.5.7.PPG Waveform/Pulse Wave Analysis
5.5.8.Progress of non-invasive blood pressure sensing
5.5.9.Overview of technologies for cuff-less blood pressure
5.5.10.Case Study: Valencell - cuff-less, cal-free blood pressure
5.5.11.Advantages and limitations for bless pressure hearables.
5.5.12.Market outlook and technology readiness of wearable blood pressure
5.5.13.Wearable blood pressure : Conclusions and SWOT
5.5.14.Wearable blood pressure : key conclusions
5.6.Optical Sensors: Non-invasive Glucose Monitoring
5.6.1.Scale of the diabetes management industry continues to incentivize development of optical glucose sensors
5.6.2.FDA requirements for glucose monitoring
5.6.3.Near-Infrared Spectroscopy - Recent academic studies on glucose monitoring
5.6.4.Alternative optical approaches to non-invasive glucose monitoring: Mid Infrared and Terahertz Spectroscopy
5.6.5.Alternative optical approaches to non-invasive glucose monitoring: Raman spectroscopy and optical rotation
5.6.6.Alternative optical approaches to non-invasive glucose monitoring: Dielectric spectroscopy
5.6.7.Active companies developing optical methods for glucose monitoring
5.6.8.Non-invasive glucose monitoring: approaches
5.6.9.Notable Quotes on Non-Invasive Glucose Monitoring
5.6.10.Optical glucose sensors: SWOT
5.6.11.Optical glucose sensors: conclusions
5.7.Optical Sensors: Conclusions
5.7.1.Wearable optical sensors: SWOT
5.7.2.Optical sensors: conclusions and outlook
6.1.1.Introduction to wearable optical imaging
6.2.Optical Imaging: 3D Imaging and Depth Sensors
6.2.1.Introduction to 3D imaging in wearables
6.2.2.Stereoscopic vision: Utilizing two cameras for depth perception
6.2.3.Time of Flight (ToF) cameras for depth sensing
6.2.4.Time of Flight Example: Microsoft and Kinect/Hololens
6.2.5.Structured light: Established for use in FaceID
6.2.6.Structured Light Example: Intel's RealSense™
6.2.7.Application example: motion capture in animation
6.2.8.Spectroscopic vision example: Ultraleap
6.2.9.Commercial 3D camera examples
6.2.10.Comparison of 3D imaging technologies
6.2.11.Interim summary: Positional and motion tracking for XR
6.3.Optical Imaging: Eye Tracking
6.3.1.Why is eye-tracking important for AR/VR devices?
6.3.2.Eye-tracking sensor categories
6.3.3.Eye-tracking using cameras with machine vision
6.3.4.Eye-tracking companies based on conventional/NIR cameras and machine vision software
6.3.5.Event-based vision for AR/VR eye-tracking
6.3.6.Event-based vision: Pros and cons
6.3.7.Importance of software for event-based vision
6.3.8.Eye tracking with laser scanning MEMS
6.3.9.Capacitive sensing of eye movement
6.3.10.Interim summary: Eye-tracking for XR
6.4.Optical imaging: Conclusions
6.4.1.Optical imaging for wearables: SWOT
6.4.2.Optical imaging for wearables: key conclusions
7.1.1.Introduction to wearable electrodes
7.2.Electrodes: Overview and Key Players
7.2.1.Applications and product types
7.2.2.Key requirements of wearable electrodes
7.2.3.Key players in wearable electrodes
7.2.4.Skin patch and e-textile electrode supply chain
7.2.5.Increased demand for wearable sensors with electrodes
7.2.6.Material suppliers collaboration has enabled large scale trials of wearable skin patches
7.2.7.Supplier overview: printed electrodes for skin patches and e-textiles (I)
7.2.8.Supplier overview: printed electrodes for skin patches and e-textiles (2)
7.3.Electrodes: Types
7.3.1.Overview of wearable electrode types
7.4.Electrode Types: Wet and Dry
7.4.1.Wet vs dry electrodes
7.4.2.Wet electrodes: The incumbent technology
7.4.3.The role of adhesive in wet electrodes
7.4.4.Dry electrodes: A more durable emerging solution
7.4.5.Skin patches use both wet and dry electrodes depending on the use-case
7.4.6.E-textiles integrate dry electrodes and conductive inks
7.4.7.Electrode and sensing functionality woven into textiles
7.4.8.E-textile market adoption of conductive inks has peaked
7.4.9.SWOT analysis and key conclusions for wet and dry electrodes
7.5.Electrode Types: Microneedles
7.5.1.Microneedle electrodes
7.5.2.Evaluating materials and manufacturing methods for microneedle electrode arrays
7.5.3.Researchers are investigating microneedle manufacture via micromolding
7.5.4.Flexible microneedle arrays possible with PET substrates
7.5.5.Microneedle electrodes less susceptible to noise
7.5.6.Global distribution of microneedle array patch developers
7.5.7.Outlook for microneedle electrodes
7.6.Electrode Types: Electronic Skins
7.6.1.Electronic skins (also known as 'epidermal electronics')
7.6.2.Materials and manufacturing approaches to electronic skins
7.6.3.Skin-inspired electronics in academia (Stanford University)
7.6.4.Skin-inspired electronics in academia (VTT/Tampere University)
7.6.5.Skin-inspired electronics in academia (Northwestern University)
7.6.6.Skin-inspired electronics in academia (University of Tokyo) (I)
7.6.7.Skin-inspired electronics in academia (University of Tokyo) (II)
7.6.8.Outlook for electronic skins
7.7.Electrodes: Application Trends
7.7.1.Wearable electrodes: Applications and product types
7.8.Electrode Application Trends: Biopotential - ECG
7.8.1.Introduction: Measuring biopotential
7.8.2.Introduction: electrocardiography (ECG, or EKG)
7.8.3.Arrythmia detection is a key use-case for ECG with opportunities for wet and dry electrodes
7.8.4.Diagnosis process for atrial fibrillation and other arrhythmias most reduced via implantables
7.8.5.Skin patches solve ECG monitoring pain points
7.8.6.Cardiac monitoring skin patches: device types
7.8.7.Cardiac monitoring device types: Advantages and disadvantages
7.8.8.Reimbursement codes for wearable cardiac monitors
7.8.9.Key players: Skin patches/Holter for ECG
7.8.10.Cardiac monitoring players and devices
7.8.11.Wrist-worn ECG struggles to compete with the 12-lead gold standard
7.8.12.E-textile integrated ECG predominantly used in extreme environments with new market opportunities emerging
7.8.13.Summary and outlook for wearable ECG
7.9.Electrode Application Trends: Biopotential - EEG
7.9.1.Electroencephalography (EEG)
7.9.2.Key players and applications of wearable EEG
7.9.3.Clinical market: wet electrodes create a pain point for epilepsy patients and an opportunity for new materials and wearables
7.9.4.Hearable EEG for seizure prediction closing in on FDA approval
7.9.5.Sleep market for EEG in competition with the wider sleep-tech sector
7.9.6.Easier access to emotion monitoring expands the opportunity within marketing
7.9.7.Advanced brain computer interfaces will be implantable before they are wearable
7.9.8.An opportunity for EEG in virtual reality
7.9.9.Summary and outlook for wearable EEG
7.10.Electrode Application Trends: Biopotential - EMG
7.10.1.Introduction to Electromyography (EMG)
7.10.2.Investment in EMG for virtual reality and neural interfacing is increasing
7.10.3.Key players and applications of wearable EMG
7.10.4.Opportunities in the prosumer market for EMG integrated e-textiles
7.10.5.Meta's prototype EMG wristband measures finger position with mm resolution for human machine interface
7.10.6.Summary and outlook for EMG
7.10.7.Outlook for wearable biopotential in XR/AR
7.10.8.Electrodes: Application Trends: Bioimpedance
7.11.Bioimpedance: An introduction
7.11.1.Technology overview - Galvanic skin response (GSR)
7.11.2.GSR algorithms: Managing noise and other errors
7.11.3.GSR algorithms: Data interpretation challenges
7.11.4.Commercialised GSR Devices
7.11.5.Bioimpedance also enables hydration monitoring
7.11.6.Summary and outlook for bioimpedance/GSR
7.12.Electrodes: Conclusions
7.12.1.Consolidated SWOT of wearable electrodes
7.12.2.Wearable electrodes: conclusions and outlook
8.1.1.Introduction to wearable force and strain sensing
8.2.Force Sensors
8.2.1.Force sensing with piezoresistive materials
8.2.2.Thin film pressure sensor architectures
8.2.3.Smart insoles are the main application for printed pressure sensors
8.2.4.Smart insoles target both fitness and medical applications
8.2.5.Movesole outlines durability challenges for smart insoles
8.2.6.Sensoria integrates pressure sensors into a sock rather than an insole
8.2.7.Force sensing with piezoelectric materials
8.2.8.Piezoelectric pressure sensors restricted to niche applications
8.2.9.Novel wearable pressure sensor technologies struggle to gain traction
8.2.10.Intervention pathways depend on temperature sensors and RPM integration
8.2.11.Mapping the wearable force sensor landscape
8.2.12.Outlook for wearable force/pressure sensors
8.3.Strain Sensors
8.3.1.Competing approaches to wearable strain sensing
8.3.2.Capacitive strain sensors
8.3.3.Use of dielectric electroactive polymers (EAPs)
8.3.4.Strain sensitive e-textiles utilized in gloves
8.3.5.Capacitive strain sensors integrated into clothing
8.3.6.Resistive strain sensors
8.3.7.Karlsruhe Institute for Technology develop 3D printed soft electronics for strain sensing
8.3.8.Liquid Wire develops wearable strain sensors based on liquid metal gel
8.3.9.Strain sensor examples: BeBop Sensors
8.3.10.Mapping the wearable force sensor landscape
8.3.11.Outlook for wearable strain sensors
9.1.Two main roles for temperature sensors in wearables
9.2.Incumbent methods for measuring core body temperature are invasive
9.3.Key players, form factors and applications for wearable body temperature sensors
9.4.Types of temperature sensor
9.5.Success for wearable temperature requires both accuracy and continuous monitoring capabilities.
9.6.Wearable temperature sensor utilized as route to market for flexible batteries
9.7.Emerging approaches utilising NIR spectroscopy
9.8.Flexible wearable temperature sensing (PST Sensors)
9.9.Mapping the wearable temperature sensor landscape
9.10.Summary of wearable temperature sensors: SWOT
9.11.Summary of key conclusions for wearable temperature sensors
10.1.1.Chemical sensors: Chapter overview
10.1.2.Chemical sensing: An introduction
10.1.3.Selectivity and signal transduction
10.1.4.Analyte selection and availability
10.1.5.Optical chemical sensors
10.2.Chemical Sensors: Continuous Glucose Monitoring (Interstitial CGM)
10.2.1.Introduction to diabetes management
10.2.2.Introduction to continuous glucose monitors
10.2.3.Operating principle typical CGM device
10.2.4.Sensing principle of commercial CGM
10.2.5.CGM sensor chemistry
10.2.6.CGM technologies: glucose dehydrogenase
10.2.7.CGM miniaturization and "green" diabetes
10.2.8.CGM sensor manufacturing and anatomy
10.2.9.Sensor filament structure
10.2.10.Foreign body responses to CGM devices
10.2.11.Calibration of glucose monitoring devices
10.2.12.Interference of medication with CGM accuracy
10.2.13.Comparison metrics for CGM devices
10.2.14.CGM: Overview of key players
10.2.15.Market share in 2019 (revenue)
10.2.16.Example: Accuracy of CGM devices over time
10.2.17.SWOT analysis of interstitial sensors for CGM
10.3.Chemical Sensors: Non-invasive Glucose Monitoring
10.3.1.Measuring glucose in sweat
10.3.2.Measuring glucose in tears
10.3.3.Measuring glucose in saliva
10.3.4.Measuring glucose in breath
10.3.5.Measuring glucose in urine
10.3.6.SWOT analysis of non-invasive chemical sensors
10.4.Chemical Sensors: Conclusions
10.4.1.SWOT: Chemical glucose sensors
10.4.2.Companies using each technique (other fluids)
10.4.3.Roadmap of chemical wearable sensors for glucose sensing
11.1.1.Introduction to novel biometrics and methods
11.2.Novel Biosensors: Emerging Biometrics
11.2.1.Use-cases, stakeholders, key players and SWOT analysis of wearable alcohol sensors
11.2.2.Use-cases, stakeholders, key players and SWOT analysis of wearable lactate/lactic acid sensors
11.2.3.Use-cases, stakeholders, key players and SWOT analysis of wearable hydration sensors
11.3.Novel Biosensors: Emerging Sensing Methods
11.3.1.Urine sensors in smart diapers seeking orders from elderly care providers
11.3.2.Ultrasound imaging could provide longer term competition to optical imaging.
11.3.3.Wearable sensing potential of microneedles for fluid sampling depends on scale up of manufacturing methods
11.3.4.'Clinic on the Wrist' and 'Lab on Skin' competing to replace multiple diagnostic tests and monitor vital signs
11.4.Novel Biosensors: Conclusions
11.4.1.Market readiness of wearable sensors for novel biometrics
11.4.2.Conclusions and outlook: Wearable sensors for novel biometrics

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Slides 381
Forecasts to 2033
ISBN 9781915514226

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