Sodium-ion battery market to exceed a value of US$16 billion by 2034

Sodium-ion Batteries 2024-2034: Technology, Players, Markets, and Forecasts

Na-ion battery; layered transition metal oxides, polyanionic compounds, and PBA based cathodes; non-graphitic anodes; player profiles and technology benchmarking; patent analysis; material and cost analysis; electric vehicles and energy storage

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Diversification in the Energy Storage Industry is Foreseeable
Among the existing energy storage technologies, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have unmatched energy density and versatility. Since their first commercialization, the growth in LIBs has been driven by portable devices. In recent years, however, large-scale electric vehicles and stationary applications have emerged. Because LIB raw material deposits are unevenly distributed and prone to price fluctuations, these large-scale applications have put unprecedented pressure on the LIB value chain, resulting in the need for alternative energy storage chemistries. The sodium-ion battery (SIB or Na-ion battery) chemistry is one of the most promising "beyond-lithium" energy storage technologies. Within this report, the prospects and key challenges for the commercialization of SIBs are discussed.
As the world progresses rapidly towards electrification, the energy storage industry is increasingly reliant on critical raw materials such as lithium and cobalt. Diversification of battery chemistries is critical for long-term capacity growth. It should be self-evident that no single battery chemistry possesses all the attributes for every single application - each market has its nuances and requires unique solutions. The sodium-ion chemistry will certainly not be the answer for all applications; however, it will be well-suited to complement, rather than displace, the existing and future lithium-ion technologies in many applications. Concerns of energy security and geopolitical considerations in the supply chain also drive nations without local access to lithium-ion raw materials to seek alternative chemistries to meet energy storage demands.
Small Pilot Plants and Big Plans
Currently, mainly pilot plants are running, and a few smaller factories are starting up, which only produce a few gigawatt hours (GWh) of Na-ion batteries per year, but the capacities that have been publicly announced by various raw material and battery manufacturers alone add up to well over 100 GWh by 2030. By 2025, significantly more capacity can be built up than that has been financed so far if investors are found for it in the course of 2024. The forecast of a radical conversion of a large part of the industry to a new technology in a few years may sound bold, but in the last five years alone, this has happened twice in the battery industry with NMC811 and LFP. Na-ion requires hardly any new plant technology, just different starting materials, and production parameters. This latest report from IDTechEx covers the global commercialization efforts of Na-ion batteries by analyzing patents and finds that China is taking the lead once again. It covers over 30 players globally with detailed insights into their technology, market fit, and production plans.
Cell specifications, expected applications, and mass production plans of Na-ion battery players. Note: Gen 1 cell specifications as achieved are shown here, with gen 2 cell targeted energy densities listed. Source: IDTechEx.
Significant Savings Over LFP are Unlikely Initially
There is currently no cost-effective battery technology with an energy density between lead and lithium batteries. According to IDTechEx research, the average cell cost for Na-ion batteries is US$87/kWh taking different chemistries into account. By the end of the decade, the production cost of Na-ion battery cells using primarily iron and manganese will probably bottom out at around US$40/kWh, which would be around US$50/kWh at the pack level. Na-ion cells are likely to come at a price premium initially, but IDTechEx expects a drop in cost/price in the short term through manufacturing efficiencies, scale, and technology development. However, long-term cost reductions become harder as technology and manufacturing become more established and mature. The IDTechEx report includes modeling of various Na-ion chemistries with a breakdown of the material and prices.
Sodium is Not the End for Lithium
For most EVs, volumetric energy density is the first or second priority because the more space a battery cell takes up for a given energy density, the fewer cells you can squeeze under a vehicle, limiting range. For grid storage, the space that the battery packs take up doesn't affect their commercial viability, and the priority is the cost per kWh per cycle. Commercial energy storage is all about cost control, and this is where sodium ions can potentially dominate other chemistries. The greatest potential in transport applications for Na-ion batteries exists wherever the energy density of lithium batteries is not fully utilized. This includes almost all electric cars with a so-called standard range, i.e., reduced battery capacity compared to more expensive models of the same construction. There, sodium batteries with higher charging speeds and less capacity loss in cold temperatures could represent a very attractive alternative. Above all, thanks to this alternative energy storage technology, lithium batteries will be available where they are truly indispensable.
Promising fields of applications for sodium-ion batteries. Source: IDTechEx
Key takeaways from this report include:
  • Analysis and discussion of Na-ion cathodes/anode chemistries and electrolyte formulations
  • Hard Carbon market analysis including suppliers and precursors
  • Na-ion player profiles including technology benchmarking
  • Na-ion industry supply chain and manufacturing capacities
  • Key Na-ion player patent analysis
  • Na-ion battery material and cost modelling
  • Target markets and applications for Na-ion batteries
  • Na-ion battery demand (GWh) and market value (US$) forecasts
Report MetricsDetails
Historic Data2020 - 2023
CAGRGlobal demand for Na-ion batteries is forecast to grow to just under 124GWh in 2034, from 4GWh in 2024, at a CAGR of 40%.
Forecast Period2024 - 2034
Forecast UnitsGWh, US$
Regions CoveredWorldwide
Segments CoveredElectric Vehicles and Stationary Storage
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Table of Contents
1.1.Why are alternative battery chemistries needed?
1.2.Introduction to sodium-ion batteries (SIBs)
1.3.Na-ion vs other chemistries
1.4.Cathode active materials (CAMs)
1.5.Critical minerals supply chain risk
1.6.Anode active materials (AAMs)
1.7.HC anode material manufacturers
1.8.Na-ion battery characteristics
1.9.Appraisal of Na-ion (1)
1.10.Appraisal of Na-ion (2)
1.11.Value proposition of Na-ion batteries
1.12.Na-ion cell material costs compared to Li-ion
1.13.Key risks in the Na-ion battery market
1.14.Na-ion patents show China's dominance
1.15.China leading the race to Na-ion commercialisation
1.16.Policies in China supporting Na-ion development
1.17.Na-ion player landscape
1.18.Overview of Na-ion players
1.19.Current and projected Na-ion battery manufacturing capacity globally
1.20.What markets exist for Na-ion batteries?
1.21.Na-ion will not eat into Li-ion's dominating market share
1.22.Na-ion timeline - Technology and performance
1.23.Innovations and opportunities for Na-ion
1.24.Na-ion demand by application 2023-2034 (GWh)
1.25.Na-ion cell market value 2022-2034 (US$ Billion)
2.1.Electrochemistry definitions 1
2.2.Electrochemistry definitions 2
2.3.Electrochemistry definitions 3
2.4.The state of Li-ion
2.5.Why are alternative battery chemistries needed?
2.6.Overcoming overreliance on scarce resources
2.7.Abundance of sodium
2.8.Mining of lithium and sodium
2.9.Introduction to sodium-ion batteries
2.10.How do Na-ion batteries work?
2.11.A note on Sodium
2.12.Na-ion vs Li-ion
2.13.Reasons to develop Na-ion
2.14.Appraisal of Na-ion (1)
2.15.Appraisal of Na-ion (2)
2.16.Value proposition of Na-ion batteries
2.17.Comparison of rechargeable battery technologies
2.18.Policies supporting Na-ion development
2.19.Key risks in the Na-ion battery market
3.1.Na-based battery types
3.2.Molten sodium batteries
3.3.Na-ion battery cathode chemistries
3.4.Transition metal layered oxides
3.5.Layered oxide cathode chemistries - Cycling
3.6.Polyanionic compounds
3.7.Comparison of different polyanionic materials
3.8.Prussian blue analogues (PBA)
3.9.Comparison of cathode materials
3.10.Cathode materials used in Industry
3.11.Summary of Na-ion cathode materials
3.12.Na-ion battery anode materials
3.13.Types of anode
3.14.Carbon based anodes
3.15.Low voltage plateau for anodes
3.16.Comparison of carbon based anodes
3.17.Hard carbon precursors
3.18.Bio-waste vs oil-based feedstocks for HC
3.19.HC anode material manufacturers
3.20.Alloying anodes
3.21.Faradion anode development
3.22.Summary of Na-ion anode materials
3.24.Comparison of electrolyte salts and solvents (1)
3.25.Comparison of electrolyte salts and solvents (2)
3.26.Thermal stability of electrolytes (1)
3.27.Thermal stability of electrolytes (2)
3.28.Electrolytes used in industry
3.29.Summary of Na-ion electrolyte formulations
3.30.Summary of Na-ion cell design
3.31.0 V storage of Na-ion batteries
3.32.Transportation of Na-ion batteries
3.33.Electrochemical challenges with Na-ion batteries
3.34.Production steps in Na-ion battery manufacturing
3.35.Implications of Na-ion manufacturing
4.1.Na-ion battery safety
4.2.Risks associated with Na-ion cells
4.3.Countermeasures for associated risks
4.4.Countermeasures to address dendrite formation
4.5.Improving electrolyte stability
4.6.Anodes and electrolyte solvents
4.7.Stabilising additives for Na-ion cell electrolytes
4.8.0 V capability of Na-ion systems
4.9.Managing safe operation of Na-ion batteries
4.10.Thermal management strategies
4.11.Low energy density Na-ion battery testing
4.12.Summary of Na-ion safety
5.1.Player landscape and benchmarking
5.1.1.List of Na-ion players (1)
5.1.2.List of Na-ion players (2)
5.1.3.Na-ion players by region
5.1.4.Overview of top 4 Na-ion players
5.1.5.Na-ion companies compared
5.1.6.Na-ion performance compared
5.1.7.Specific energy comparison
5.1.8.Cycle life comparison
5.1.9.Na-ion supply chain
5.1.10.Na-Ion player landscape
5.1.11.Na-ion players with commercial products
5.1.12.Current and projected Na-ion battery manufacturing capacity globally
5.1.13.Na-ion battery production targets
5.2.Chinese player profiles
5.2.1.HiNa Battery - Background
5.2.2.HiNa Battery patent portfolio
5.2.3.HiNa Battery - Technology
5.2.4.HiNa Battery - Applications
5.2.5.HiNa Battery - Na-ion battery powered EV
5.2.6.HiNa Battery cell specifications
5.2.7.CBAK Energy and HiNa manufacturing partnership
5.2.8.CATL enter Na-ion market
5.2.9.CATL hybrid Li-ion and Na-ion pack concept
5.2.10.CATL hybrid pack designs
5.2.11.SWOT analysis of dual-chemistry battery pack
5.2.12.Concluding remarks on dual-chemistry batteries
5.2.13.CATL Na-ion patent portfolio
5.2.14.CATL Prussian Blue Analogue Na-ion cathode
5.2.15.CATL Na-ion layered oxide cathode performance
5.2.16.LiFun Technology
5.2.17.Zoolnasm (Zhongna Energy)
5.2.18.Zoolnasm product timeline
5.2.19.Zhongna Energy Na6Fe5(SO4)8/FeSO4 cathode
5.2.21.DFD New Energy
5.2.22.DFD New Energy Na-ion cell specification
5.2.24.Phylion Na-ion cell specification
5.2.25.Cham Battery Technology
5.2.27.Shenzhen Puna Times Energy
5.2.29.Transimage cell specifications
5.2.30.Beijing Xuexiong Technology
5.2.31.Farasis and Svolt Energy
5.2.33.EVE Energy
5.2.34.Ronbay Technology
5.2.35.Natrium Energy
5.2.36.China Na-ion battery market landscape
5.3.UK player profiles
5.3.1.Faradion - Background
5.3.2.Faradion cell development
5.3.3.Reliance investment into Faradion
5.3.4.Faradion - technology (1)
5.3.5.Faradion - Technology (2)
5.3.6.Faradion patent portfolio
5.3.7.Faradion target markets
5.3.8.Faradion SWOT analysis
5.3.9.Nation Energie
5.3.10.AMTE Power
5.3.11.LiNa Energy
5.3.12.LiNa Energy - demonstration
5.4.RoW player profiles
5.4.1.Natron Energy - Background
5.4.2.Natron patent portfolio
5.4.3.Natron Energy - Technology
5.4.4.Na-ion using Prussian blue analogues
5.4.5.Natron Energy - Partners
5.4.6.Natron Energy SWOT analysis
5.4.7.Unigrid Battery
5.4.8.Peak Energy
5.4.9.Bedrock Materials
5.4.10.Tiamat Energy
5.4.11.Tiamat products
5.4.12.Tiamat power cells
5.4.13.Tiamat applications
5.4.14.Tiamat manufacturing roadmap
5.4.15.NAIMA project - Tiamat lead consortium
5.4.16.NAIMA value chain
5.4.17.NAIMA objectives
5.4.18.NAIMA outputs
5.4.20.Altris manufacturing capacity
5.4.21.Northvolt-Altris partnership
5.4.23.Nippon Electric Glass
5.4.24.Indi Energy
5.4.25.Indi Energy - Technology
5.4.26.Biomass-derived hard carbon
5.4.27.Godi Energy
5.5.Sodium-based battery players
5.5.1.NGK Insulators - Background
5.5.2.NGK Insulators - Technology
5.5.3.NGK Insulators - Deployment
5.5.4.Broadbit Batteries
5.5.5.Aqueous Na-ion
5.5.6.Geyser Batteries
6.1.Patent landscape
6.1.1.Patent landscape introduction
6.1.2.Na-ion patent landscape
6.1.3.Na-ion patent trends
6.1.4.Na-ion patent assignees
6.1.5.Non-academic Na-ion patent assignees
6.1.6.New entrants
6.2.Key player patents
6.2.1.CATL patent portfolio
6.2.2.CATL Prussian Blue Analogue Na-ion cathode
6.2.3.CATL Na-ion layered oxide cathode performance
6.2.4.Faradion patent overview
6.2.5.Faradion cathode and anode materials
6.2.6.Na-ion layered oxide cathode performance
6.2.7.Faradion anode development
6.2.8.Natron patent portfolio
6.2.9.Natron Energy patent examples
6.2.10.HiNa Battery Na-ion patent landscape
6.2.11.Brunp patent portfolio
6.2.12.Brunp patents
6.2.13.Toyota patent portfolio
6.2.14.Central South University patent portfolio
6.2.15.Central South University Na-ion anode development
6.2.16.Central South University Na-ion cathode development
6.2.17.CNRS patent portfolio
6.2.18.CNRS composite anodes
6.2.19.Zhongna Energy Na6Fe5(SO4)8/FeSO4 cathode
6.2.20.Overview of other industrial assignees
6.2.21.Remarks on Na-ion patents
6.3.Academic highlights
6.3.1.Academic Na-ion activity
6.3.2.Academic Na-ion activity academic highlights academic highlights
7.1.Na-ion technology acceptance
7.2.Na-ion batteries for grid applications
7.3.What markets exist for Na-ion batteries?
7.4.Target markets for Na-ion
7.5.Players and target market (1)
7.6.Players and target market (2)
7.7.Transport applications for Na-ion battery
7.8.Sodium-ion for A00 cars in China
7.9.Niu two-wheelers with sodium-ion batteries
7.10.High power, high cycle applications
7.11.Na-ion storage for EV fast charging
7.12.Summary of Na-ion applications
8.1.Comparing Na-ion materials and chemistries (material analysis and assumptions)
8.2.Theoretical gravimetric energy density
8.3.Energy density of Na-ion chemistries
8.4.Na-ion energy density vs Li-ion
8.5.Na-ion material intensity
8.6.Na-ion cell cost analysis
8.7.Na-ion cell material costs compared to Li-ion
8.8.Na-ion cell cost structure
8.9.Faradion Na-ion cell cost structure
8.10.Na-ion raw material cost contribution
8.11.Na-ion price reported by players
8.12.Faradion Na-ion price estimate
8.13.Key takeaways on Na-ion cost and energy density
9.1.Outlook for Na-ion
9.2.Forecast methodology
9.3.Notes on the forecast
9.4.Na-ion demand by application 2023-2034 (GWh)
9.5.Na-ion demand by EV segment 2023-2034 (GWh)
9.6.Na-ion cell market value 2022-2034 (US$ Billion)

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Slides 272
Forecasts to 2034
Published Dec 2023
ISBN 9781835700068

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