Global utilization of captured CO₂ to reach 800 Mt by 2044.

Carbon Dioxide Utilization 2024-2044: Technologies, Market Forecasts, and Players

Granular forecasts, interview-based company profiles, benchmarking, and market outlook of carbon dioxide utilization technologies in enhanced oil recovery, building materials, fuels, polymers, drop-in chemicals, crop greenhouses, algae, and proteins

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Carbon capture is increasingly recognised as a key technology for decarbonizing the world's economy and reaching net-zero goals globally. Carbon dioxide utilization (CO2U) technologies are a sub-set of carbon capture utilization and storage (CCUS) technologies with the potential to make CO2 capture economically viable even in the absence of carbon pricing and tax incentives.
"Carbon Dioxide Utilization 2024-2044: Technologies, Market Forecasts, and Players" provides a comprehensive outlook of the global CO2 utilization industry, with an in-depth analysis of the technological, economic, and environmental aspects that are set to shape this emerging market over the next twenty years. The report also includes a twenty-year granular forecast for the deployment of 11 CO2U product categories, alongside 30+ interview-based company profiles.
Breakdown of how the share of CO2 utilized for each category will change over the next twenty years. Source: IDTechEx
Carbon dioxide utilization technologies refer to the practical use of waste CO2, captured abiotically using direct air capture or point source capture of industrial emitter (including industrial biogenic carbon dioxide sources), to create financial benefits and produce net CO2 emissions reduction or removal. Alongside promoting a more circular economy, CO2U can also sometimes result in products with enhanced properties. Carbon dioxide utilization products provide climate benefits by displacing fossil-fuel based incumbents, and some are net-zero or even net-negative.
IDTechEx considers CO2 use cases in enhanced oil recovery, building materials, liquid and gaseous fuels, polymers, chemicals, and in biological yield-boosting (crop greenhouses, algae, and fermentation), exploring the technology innovations and opportunities within each area.
Emerging applications of CO2 utilization: inputs, manufacturing pathways, and products made from CO2. Source: IDTechEx.
The options are diverse
Despite its potential to create a market for waste CO2, not all CO2U technologies are created equal. These systems face a range of economic, technical, and regulatory challenges which need to be carefully considered so that the technologies that actually provide climate benefits - and are economically viable - can be prioritized and pursued. For instance, for many CO2U routes, the CO2 sequestration is only temporary with the CO2 utilized being released to the atmosphere once the product is consumed (e.g., CO2-derived fuels or proteins), whilst for others, the CO2 can be stored permanently (e.g., CO2-derived building materials). On the economic side, many CO2U pathways can be considerably more expensive than their fossil-based counterparts due to high energy requirements, low yields, or need of other expensive feedstock (e.g., green hydrogen, catalysts). The report provides insights into the most promising processes being developed in CO2U, highlighting the pros and cons of each pathway and end-product.
Innovative companies across the world are developing technologies to improve the energy efficiency of CO2 conversion processes and reduce their costs. The report gives an overview of these players' latest developments, with first-hand accounts of the challenges and opportunities within the industry.
Fastest growing CO2U applications
Building materials and fuels represent the areas with high growth potential. Both markets intrinsically have large CO2 utilization potentials, but each have its own specific drivers. CO2U in building materials is the more straightforward CO2U technology, able to lower the carbon footprint of ready-mixed concrete, pre-cast concrete, and carbonate aggregates/supplementary cementitious materials through mineralization reactions. Carbon dioxide can be permanently stored, and cement use can be reduced. Growth will be driven by new certifications, superior materials performance, and the ability to achieve price parity through waste disposal fees.
CO2-derived fuels market penetration is expected to come largely from regulations already being put in place, such as fuel-blend mandates for long-haul transportation. As green hydrogen electrolyzer capacity scales up worldwide, production of e-fuels from carbon dioxide using power-to-x technology (including e-methanol, synthetic natural gas, e-diesel, e-kerosene, and e-gasoline production) will also increase. Several CO2-derived fuels are already being commercially produced (with many more commercial facilities expected over the next decade) and could play a role in decarbonizing shipping and aviation (as full electrification of the aviation and maritime sectors is currently unfeasible and is likely to remain so for the foreseeable future).
Established CO2U applications
Some CO2-derived chemicals (particularly CO2-derived polycarbonates) are already produced commercially, but only require relatively small amounts of CO2 compared to other applications. While potentially all carbon containing chemicals could utilize carbon dioxide in production, those requiring non-reductive pathways are the most promising due to a smaller energy demand. Carbon dioxide utilization in crop greenhouse enrichment is another mature application set to grow once CO2 pipeline transport infrastructure expands. Several companies look to circumvent this transportation problem by using DAC (direct air capture) on site. CO2-EOR will remain the biggest application area over the next two decades due to its profitability, established infrastructure, and a continued demand for oil.
Key questions answered in this report
  • What is CO₂ utilization and how can it be used to address climate change?
  • How is CO2 used in the industry today?
  • What is the market potential for CO2U?
  • How can CO2 be converted into useful products?
  • What is the technology readiness level of CO2U processes?
  • What are the energy and feedstocks requirements for CO2U processes?
  • How does the performance of CO2-derived products compare with their conventional counterparts?
  • What are the key drivers and hurdles for CO2U market growth?
  • How much do CO2U technologies cost?
  • Where are the key growth opportunities for CO2U?
  • Who are the key players in CO2U?
  • What is the climate impact of CO2U technologies?
Key aspects
This report provides the following information
Technology trends & players analysis
  • Detailed overview of captured carbon dioxide utilization technologies: carbonation, thermal and catalytic processes, electrochemical pathways, biotechnological and injection processes.
  • Market potential of waste CO₂ utilization in enhanced oil recovery, construction materials, fuels, chemicals, polymers, crop greenhouses, algae cultivation, and fermentation for protein production.
  • Technology readiness level (TRL) analysis.
  • Technical challenges and economics of scaling up carbon dioxide utilization operations.
  • Assessment of infrastructure and supply chain requirements for CO₂ utilization market uptake.
  • Climate benefit potential and lifecycle assessment (LCA) overview of main CO₂-derived products.
  • Benchmarking comparison between CO₂-derived products and alternative low-carbon solutions.
  • Developments in manufacturing processes using captured CO₂ as a feedstock.
  • Latest developments in key policies influencing the Carbon Capture and Utilization (CCU) market.
  • Analysis of CCU players latest developments, observing trends, partnerships, key patents, projects announced, and funding.
  • Interview-based primary information from key companies.
Market Forecasts & Analysis:
  • 20-year granular market forecasts for both established (CO₂-EOR) and emerging markets of CO₂ utilization, the latter subdivided in 11 application areas.
Report MetricsDetails
CAGRGlobally, 800 Mt of CO₂ will be utilized each year by 2044. The corresponding CAGR from 2024 to 2044 is 15.2%.
Forecast Period2024 - 2044
Forecast UnitsCO₂ utilized (Mt), Product revenue (USD$), Product volume (Mt)
Regions CoveredWorldwide
Segments CoveredCO₂ enhanced oil recovery, CO₂-derived construction materials (ready-mixed concrete mixing, precast concrete curing, and CO₂-derived aggregates), CO₂-derived fuels (methanol, synthetic natural gas, and synfuels), CO₂-derived polymers and commodity chemicals, CO₂ use to boost biological yields in greenhouses, algae cultivation, and fermentation for protein production.
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Table of Contents
1.1.Why CO₂ utilization?
1.2.CO₂ utilization pathways
1.3.CO₂-EOR dominates utilization of captured CO₂
1.4.World's large-scale CO₂ capture with CO₂-EOR facilities
1.5.Key takeaways in CO₂-EOR
1.6.Comparison of emerging CO₂ utilization applications
1.7.Key players in emerging CO₂ Utilization technologies
1.8.Production of CO₂-derived building materials is growing fast
1.9.CO₂ use in the cement and concrete supply chain
1.10.Competitive landscape: TRL of players in CO₂U concrete
1.11.Key takeaways in CO₂-derived building materials
1.12.Carbon-containing chemicals could be made from CO₂
1.13.The chemical industry's decarbonization challenge
1.14.Major pathways to convert CO₂ into polymers
1.15.Key takeaways in CO₂-derived chemicals and polymers
1.16.Emerging applications of CO₂ utilization
1.17.CO₂-derived fuels could decarbonize transport
1.18.Main routes to CO₂-derived fuels
1.19.Key takeaways in CO₂-derived fuels
1.20.CO₂ utilization to boost biological yields
1.21.Key takeaways in CO₂ biological yield boosting
1.22.Factors driving CO₂U future market potential
1.23.Policy and regulation framework
1.24.Carbon utilization potential and climate benefits
1.25.CO₂ utilization: Analyst viewpoint (i)
1.26.CO₂ utilization: Analyst viewpoint (ii)
1.27.CO₂ utilization: Analyst viewpoint (iii)
1.28.CO₂ utilization forecast by product (million metric tonnes of CO₂ per year), 2024-2044
1.29.CO₂ utilization market forecast, 2024-2044: discussion
2.1.Definition and report scope
2.2.IDTechEx's Carbon Management Portfolio
2.3.The world needs an unprecedented transition away from fossil carbon
2.4.Why CO₂ utilization?
2.5.How is CO₂ used and sourced today?
2.6.CO₂ utilization pathways
2.7.Reductive vs non-reductive methods
2.8.CO₂ Utilization in Enhanced Oil Recovery
2.9.CO₂ Utilization in Enhanced Oil Recovery
2.10.Main emerging applications of CO₂ utilization
2.11.Emerging applications of CO₂ utilization
2.12.Carbon Utilization potential and climate benefits
2.13.When can CO₂ utilization be considered "net-zero"?
2.14.Is the origin of CO₂ important?
2.15.Factors driving future market potential
2.16.Policy and regulation framework
2.17.Voluntary carbon credit market
2.18.Cost effectiveness of CO₂ utilization applications
2.19.Traction in CO₂U: funding worldwide
2.20.Technical challenges of major CO₂U applications
2.21.Climate benefits of major CO₂U applications
2.22.Technology readiness and climate benefits of CO₂U pathways
2.23.Carbon utilization business models
3.1.What is CO₂-EOR?
3.2.What happens to the injected CO₂?
3.3.Types of CO₂-EOR designs
3.4.The CO₂ source: natural vs anthropogenic
3.5.The CO₂ source impacts costs and technology choice
3.6.Global status of CO₂-EOR: U.S. dominates but other regions arise
3.7.World's large-scale CO₂ capture with CO₂-EOR facilities
3.8.CO₂-EOR potential
3.9.Most CO₂ in the U.S. is still naturally sourced
3.10.CO₂-EOR main players in the U.S.
3.11.CO₂-EOR main players in North America
3.12.CO₂ transportation is a bottleneck
3.13.Which CCUS/EOR project is the biggest?
3.14.Boundary Dam - battling capture technical issues
3.15.CO₂-EOR in China
3.16.The economics of promoting CO₂ storage through CO₂-EOR
3.17.Role of Carbon sequestration tax credits: the U.S. 45Q
3.18.The impact of oil prices on CO₂-EOR feasibility
3.19.Petra Nova's long shutdown: lessons for the industry?
3.20.Climate considerations in CO₂-EOR
3.21.The climate impact of CO₂-EOR varies over time
3.22.CO₂-EOR: an on-ramp for CCS and DACCS?
3.23.CO₂-EOR: Progressive or "Greenwashing"
3.24.Future advancements in CO₂-EOR
3.25.CO₂-EOR SWOT analysis
3.26.Key takeaways: market
3.27.Key takeaways: environmental
4.1.1.The role of concrete in the construction sector emissions
4.1.2.The role of cement in concrete's carbon footprint
4.1.3.The role of cement in concrete's carbon footprint (ii)
4.1.4.The Basic Chemistry: CO₂ Mineralization
4.1.5.CO₂ use in the cement and concrete supply chain
4.1.6.Can the CO₂ used in building materials come from cement plants?
4.2.CO₂ utilization in concrete curing or mixing
4.2.1.CO₂ utilization in concrete curing or mixing
4.2.2.CO₂ utilization in concrete curing or mixing (ii)
4.2.3.CO₂ utilization in concrete curing - key players
4.3.CO₂ utilization in carbonates (aggregates and additives)
4.3.1.CO₂ utilization in carbonates (aggregates and additives)
4.3.2.CO₂-derived carbonates from natural minerals
4.3.3.CO₂-derived carbonates from waste
4.3.4.CO₂-derived carbonates from waste (ii)
4.3.5.Carbonation of recycled concrete in a cement plant
4.3.6.Carbonation of recycled concrete players
4.3.7.CO₂ utilization in additive carbonates - key players (i)
4.3.8.CO₂ utilization in additive carbonates - key players (ii)
4.4.Market analysis of CO₂-derived building materials
4.4.1.The market potential of CO₂ use in the construction industry
4.4.2.Supplying CO₂ to a decentralized concrete industry
4.4.3.Future of CO₂ supply for concrete
4.4.4.Prefabricated versus ready-mixed concrete markets
4.4.5.Market dynamics of cement and concrete
4.4.6.CO₂U business models in building materials
4.4.7.ASTM standards
4.4.8.CO₂U technology adoption in construction materials
4.4.9.CO₂ utilization players in mineralization
4.4.10.Competitive landscape: TRL of players in CO₂U concrete
4.4.11.Factors influencing CO₂U adoption in construction
4.4.12.Factors influencing CO₂U adoption in construction (ii)
4.4.13.Concrete carbon footprint of key CO₂U companies
4.4.14.Key takeaways in CO₂-derived building materials
4.4.15.Key takeaways in CO₂-derived building materials (ii)
4.4.16.Key takeaways in CO₂-derived building materials (iii)
5.1.1.The chemical industry's decarbonization challenge
5.1.2.CO₂ can be converted into a giant range of chemicals
5.1.3.Using CO₂ as a feedstock is energy-intensive
5.1.4.The basics: types of CO₂ utilization reactions
5.2.CO₂-derived chemicals: pathways and products
5.2.1.CO₂ conversion pathways in this chapter
5.2.2.CO₂ use in urea production
5.2.3.CO₂ may need to be first converted into CO or syngas
5.2.4.Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: syngas to hydrocarbons
5.2.5.Direct Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: CO₂ to hydrocarbons
5.2.6.Electrochemical CO₂ reduction
5.2.7.Electrochemical CO₂ reduction catalysts
5.2.8.Electrochemical CO₂ reduction technologies
5.2.9.Low-temperature electrochemical CO₂ reduction
5.2.10.ECO₂Fuel Project
5.2.11.High-temperature solid oxide electrolyzers
5.2.12.H2O electrolysis industry much more developed than CO₂ electrolysis
5.2.14.Cost comparison of CO₂ electrochemical technologies
5.2.15.Coupling H2 and electrochemical CO₂
5.2.16.What products can be made from CO₂ reduction?
5.2.17.Economic viability CO₂ reduction products
5.2.18.USA and Europe leading the way in CO₂ electrolysis
5.2.19.Summary of electrochemical CO₂ reduction
5.2.20.CO₂ microbial conversion to produce chemicals
5.2.21.CO₂-consuming microorganisms
5.2.23.CO₂ microbial conversion players (i)
5.2.24.CO₂ microbial conversion players (ii)
5.2.25.Methanol is a valuable chemical feedstock
5.2.26.Cost parity has been a challenge for CO₂-derived methanol
5.2.27.Thermochemical methods: CO₂-derived methanol
5.2.28.Carbon Recycling International: Direct hydrogenation
5.2.29.Major CO₂-derived methanol projects
5.2.30.Future methanol applications
5.2.31.Aromatic hydrocarbons from CO₂
5.2.32."Artificial photosynthesis" - photocatalytic reduction methods
5.2.33.Plasma technology for CO₂ conversion
5.3.CO₂-derived polymers
5.3.1.Major pathways to convert CO₂ into polymers
5.3.2.CO₂-derived linear-chain polycarbonates
5.3.3.Commercial production of polycarbonate from CO₂
5.3.4.Asahi Kasei: CO₂-based aromatic polycarbonates
5.3.5.Commercial production of CO₂-derived polymers
5.3.6.Methanol to olefins (polypropylene production)
5.3.7.Project announcements in 2023: Electrochemical polymer production
5.3.8.PHB from Biological Conversion: Newlight
5.4.CO₂-derived pure carbon products
5.4.1.Carbon nanostructures made from CO₂
5.4.2.Mars Materials
5.5.CO₂-derived chemicals: market and general considerations
5.5.1.Players in CO₂-derived chemicals by end-product
5.5.2.CO₂-derived chemicals: market potential
5.5.3.Are CO₂-derived chemicals climate beneficial?
5.5.4.Investments and industrial collaboration are key
5.5.5.Steel-off gases as a CO₂U feedstock
5.5.6.Centralized or distributed chemical manufacturing?
5.5.7.Could the chemical industry run on CO₂?
5.6.CO₂-derived chemicals: takeaways
5.6.1.Which CO₂U technologies are more suitable to which products?
5.6.2.Technical feasibility of main CO₂-derived chemicals
5.6.3.Key takeaways in CO₂-derived chemicals
6.1.What are CO₂-derived fuels (power-to-X)?
6.2.CO₂ can be converted into a variety of fuels
6.3.Summary of main routes to CO₂-fuels
6.4.The challenge of energy efficiency
6.5.CO₂-fuels are pertinent to a specific context
6.6.CO₂-fuels in road vehicles
6.7.Methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) synthesis
6.8.CO₂-fuels in shipping
6.9.CO₂-fuels in aviation
6.10.Sustainable aviation fuel policies (i)
6.11.Sustainable aviation fuel policies (ii)
6.13.Synthetic natural gas - thermocatalytic pathway
6.14.Biological fermentation of CO₂ into methane
6.15.Drivers and barriers for Power-to-Methane technology adoption
6.16.Power-to-Methane projects worldwide - current and announced
6.17.Can CO₂-fuels achieve cost parity with fossil-fuels?
6.18.CO₂-fuels rollout is linked to electrolyzer capacity
6.19.Low-carbon hydrogen is crucial to CO₂-fuels
6.20.CO₂-derived fuels projects announced - regional
6.21.CO₂-derived fuels projects worldwide over time - current and announced
6.22.CO₂-fuels from solar power
6.23.Companies in CO₂-fuels by end-product
6.24.CO₂-derived fuel: players
6.25.CO₂-derived fuel: players (ii)
6.26.Are CO₂-fuels climate beneficial?
6.27.CO₂-derived fuels SWOT analysis
6.28.CO₂-derived fuels: market potential
6.29.Key takeaways in CO₂-derived fuels
7.1.1.CO₂ utilization in biological processes
7.1.2.Main companies using CO₂ in biological processes
7.2.CO₂ utilization in greenhouses
7.2.1.CO₂ enrichment in greenhouses
7.2.2.CO₂ enrichment in greenhouses: market potential
7.2.3.CO₂ enrichment in greenhouses: pros and cons
7.2.4.Advancements in greenhouse CO₂ enrichment
7.3.CO₂ utilization in algae cultivation
7.3.1.CO₂-enhanced algae or cyanobacteria cultivation
7.3.2.CO₂-enhanced algae cultivation: open systems
7.3.3.CO₂-enhanced algae cultivation: closed systems
7.3.4.Algae CO₂ capture from cement plants
7.3.5.Algae has multiple market applications
7.3.6.The algae-based fuel market has been rocky
7.3.7.Algae-based fuel for aviation
7.3.8.CO₂-enhanced algae cultivation: pros and cons
7.4.CO₂ utilization in microbial conversion: food and feed production
7.4.1.CO₂ utilization in biomanufacturing
7.4.2.CO₂-consuming microorganisms
7.4.3.Food and feed from CO₂
7.4.4.CO₂-derived food and feed: market
7.4.5.Carbon fermentation: pros and cons
7.4.6.Key takeaways in CO₂ biological yield boosting
8.1.1.Forecast scope and methodology
8.1.2.Forecast product categories
8.2.CO₂ utilization overall market forecast
8.2.1.CO₂ utilization forecast by category (million metric tonnes of CO₂ per year), 2024-2044
8.2.2.CO₂ utilization forecast by product (million metric tonnes of CO₂ per year), 2024-2044
8.2.3.Data table for CO₂ utilization forecast by product (million metric tonnes of CO₂ per year)
8.2.4.Carbon utilization annual revenue forecast by category (billion US$), 2024-2044
8.2.5.Carbon utilization annual revenue forecast by product (billion US$), 2024-2044
8.2.6.CO₂ utilization market forecast, 2024-2044: discussion
8.2.7.The evolution of the CO₂U market
8.3.CO₂-Enhanced Oil Recovery forecast
8.3.1.CO₂-EOR forecast assumptions
8.3.2.CO₂ utilization forecast in enhanced oil recovery (million metric tonnes of CO₂ per year), 2024-2044
8.3.3.Annual revenue forecast for CO₂-enhanced oil recovery (billion US$), 2024-2044
8.3.4.Captured CO₂ use in EOR, 2024-2044: discussion
8.4.CO₂-derived building materials forecast
8.4.1.CO₂-derived building materials: forecast assumptions
8.4.2.CO₂ utilization forecast in building materials by end-use (million metric tonnes of CO₂ per year), 2024-2044
8.4.3.CO₂-derived building materials volume forecast by product (million metric tonnes of product per year), 2024-2044
8.4.4.Annual revenue forecast for CO₂-derived building materials by product (million US$), 2024-2044
8.4.5.CO₂-derived building materials forecast, 2024-2044: discussion (i)
8.4.6.CO₂-derived building materials forecast, 2024-2044: discussion (ii)
8.5.CO₂-derived chemicals forecast
8.5.1.CO₂-derived chemicals: forecast assumptions
8.5.2.CO₂ utilization forecast in chemicals by end-use (million metric tonnes of CO₂ per year), 2024-2044
8.5.3.CO₂-derived chemicals volume forecast by end-use (million metric tonnes product per year), 2024-2044
8.5.4.Annual revenue forecast for CO₂-derived chemicals by end-use (million US$), 2024-2044
8.5.5.CO₂-derived chemicals forecast, 2024-2044: discussion
8.6.CO₂-derived fuels forecast
8.6.1.CO₂-derived fuels: forecast assumptions
8.6.2.CO₂ utilization forecast in fuels by fuel type (million metric tonnes of CO₂ per year), 2024-2044
8.6.3.CO₂-derived fuels volume forecast by fuel type (million metric tonnes of fuel per year), 2024-2044
8.6.4.Annual revenue forecast for CO₂-derived fuels by fuel type (million US$), 2024-2044
8.6.5.CO₂-derived fuels forecast, 2024-2044: discussion (i)
8.6.6.CO₂-derived fuels forecast, 2024-2044: discussion (ii)
8.7.CO₂ use in biological yield-boosting forecast
8.7.1.CO₂ use in biological yield-boosting: forecast assumptions (greenhouses)
8.7.2.CO₂ use in biological yield-boosting: forecast assumptions (algae and proteins)
8.7.3.CO₂ utilization forecast in biological yield-boosting by end-use (million metric tonnes of CO₂ per year), 2024-2044
8.7.4.Annual revenue forecast for CO₂ use in biological yield-boosting by end-use (million US$), 2024-2044
8.7.5.CO₂ use in biological yield-boosting forecast, 2024-2044: discussion (greenhouses)
8.7.6.CO₂ use in biological yield-boosting forecast, 2024-2044: discussion (algae & proteins)
9.1.Players in CO₂-derived polymers (i)
9.2.Players in CO₂-derived polymers (ii)
9.3.Players in CO₂-derived solid carbon
10.1.Aether Diamonds
10.3.Avantium: Volta Technology
10.4.Blue Planet Systems
10.5.Cambridge Carbon Capture
10.8.Carbon Corp
10.9.Carbon Recycling International
10.10.Carbon Upcycling Technologies
10.15.CERT Systems
10.16.Chiyoda: CCUS
10.17.CO2 GRO Inc.
10.18.Coval Energy
10.19.Deep Branch
10.20.Dimensional Energy
10.21.Econic Technologies
10.22.Electrochaea GmbH
10.23.Fortera Corporation
10.24.GreenCap Solutions
10.27.Liquid Wind
10.28.Mars Materials
10.30.Newlight Technologies
10.31.OBRIST Group
10.32.O.C.O Technology
10.33.OxEon Energy
10.35.Prometheus Fuels
10.37.SkyNano LLC
10.38.Solar Foods
10.39.Solidia Technologies
10.41.Twelve Corporation
10.42.UP Catalyst

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Report Statistics

Slides 294
Companies 42
Forecasts to 2044
Published Jan 2024
ISBN 9781835700105

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