Solid-state batteries enable a US$8 billion market opportunity by 2033

Solid-State and Polymer Batteries 2023-2033: Technology, Forecasts, Players

Revolutionary approach for the battery business and potential EV game-raisers

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This report characterizes the solid-state battery technologies, materials, market, supply chain and players. It assesses and benchmarks the available solid-state battery technologies, introduces most players worldwide and analyzes the key players in this field, forecasted from 2023 to 2033 over 10 application areas of 3 key technology categories for both capacity and market value. The report also analyzes the hype and hopes behind solid-state batteries, providing deep technological and business insights.
Conventional lithium-ion batteries based on graphite anodes, layered oxide cathodes (LCO, NMC, NCA) and liquid electrolyte have been ubiquitously adopted in our daily life, from small consumer electronics to large electric vehicles and stationary energy storage systems. The requirement of decarbonization triggered electrification, further leading to the rapid growth of electric vehicle market, which has driven the development, manufacture and sales of batteries, especially lithium-ion batteries. Since their commercialization in 1991, lithium-ion batteries have had a dominant position in the battery market in various applications. In the meantime, due to their performance limitation, environmental consideration, and supply chain constraints, next-generation battery technologies are being researched, developed and commercialized. Among them, solid-state batteries have attracted the most attention, from research institutes, material providers, battery vendors, component suppliers, automotive OEMs, and venture capitals and investors.
The popular discussions on solid-state batteries have brought efforts both in academia and industry. With an increasing number of players working in this field and some milestones being achieved, a US$8 billion-market-size opportunity is potentially waiting for solid-state batteries.
Solid-state battery addressable market size. Source: IDTechEx
After years of development, a few solid-state batteries have been commercialized, with more under development. At the same time, with the continuous improvement of Li-ion batteries, there are discussions around which technologies are worth the resources and investment. There are hypes in solid-state batteries, as sometimes they are marketed as the definite replacement of conventional lithium-ion batteries. There are also pessimistic opinions, believing solid-state batteries are only in the lab and they won't bring actual superior value propositions compared with existing lithium-ion batteries.
In addition, there is a tremendous number of players announcing their technologies being the game changer of the world, together with their commercial and manufacturing plans. Solid-state batteries differ from conventional lithium-ion batteries, from the materials used, cell design, system design, to supply chain establishment, manufacturing, and recycling. It is not a mature industry yet, leaving lots of unclear questions to answer.
This report is tackling these doubts around solid-state batteries, providing introduction, analysis, and insights from various angles such as technology, commercialization, supply chain, manufacturing, markets, and players.
Within the solid-state battery regime, there are various technology approaches. Oxide, sulfide and polymer systems have become the most popular options in the next-generation development, with further variations under each category. In general, sulfide electrolytes have the advantages of high ionic conductivity - even better than liquid electrolyte - low processing temperature, and a wide electrochemical stability window. Many features make them appealing, being considered by many as the ultimate option. However, the difficulty of manufacturing and the toxic by-product hydrogen sulfide generated in the process make the commercialization relatively slow. Polymer systems are easy to fabricate, most compatible to existing manufacturing facility, and some of them are already in commercialization. The relatively high operating temperature, low anti-oxide potential, and worse stability indicate challenges. Oxide systems are more stable for lithium metal, with good electrochemical and thermal stabilities. However, the higher interface resistance and higher-cost, lower-yield manufacturing processes show some difficulties in general.
Comparison of solid-state batteries. Source: IDTechEx
There are also other technologies with further modifications within the three material systems, as well as beyond.
No technology is perfect, and complication of technical details, testing conditions, and data selected to be published can make the public very confused regarding the pros and cons of each technology. This report is therefore aiming to offer a detailed explanation and analysis from a technical angle, with our own opinions. The hypes and hopes of solid-state batteries are assessed as well. Although a few advantages cannot really be provided by current solid-state batteries, compared with conventional lithium-ion batteries, better safety, potential energy density increase, and system level design simplification are still the major drivers from solid-state batteries.
IDTechEx has been tracking the development of solid-state battery since 2014 and with years of experience, we have observed the gradual transition of efforts in this industry. For instance, early focuses were mostly on solid-state electrolyte and half/full cell demonstration. With further improvement, more things are considered for commercialization. Sample validation, system design, supply chain establishment, and manufacturing optimization are becoming increasingly important.
Conventional lithium-ion battery manufacturing has been dominated by East Asia, with Japan, China, and South Korea playing a significant role. US and European countries are competing in the race, shifting the added values away from East Asia and building battery manufacturing close to the application market. New material/component selection and change of manufacturing procedures show an indication of reshuffle of the battery supply chain. From both a technology and business point of view, development of solid-state battery has become part of the next-generation battery strategy. It has become a global game with regional interests and governmental supports. Opportunities will be available with new materials, components, systems, manufacturing methods and know-how.
Global major solid-state battery players. Source: IDTechEx
The report covers the manufacturing procedures and how various companies try to address the limitations, as well as research progress and activities of important players. The global market analysis is provided, with 10-year forecasts until 2033 for both production capacity and market size, over 10 application areas and 3 major technology groups.
This report also talks about most of the players working in this area and profiles 45 of them in "Company Profile" section. It offers further detailed company analysis of the key players, such as its technology analysis, product introduction, roadmap, financial/funding, materials, cell specification, manufacturing, supply chain, partnerships, patent introduction, future business, and SWOT analysis.
Key takeaways from this report:
  • Overview of lithium-ion battery, various solid-state battery technologies, analysis and benchmarking
  • Technology and manufacturing timelines, roadmaps
  • Manufacturing methods
  • Market analysis and forecasts
  • Cost and energy density analysis
  • Solid-state battery hype vs hope analysis
  • Player activity tracking & evaluation
  • Supply chain analysis
  • Regulations and recycling
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Table of Contents
1.1.Classifications of solid-state electrolytes
1.2.Liquid vs. solid-state batteries
1.3.Thin film vs. bulk solid-state batteries
1.4.SSB company commercial plans
1.5.Solid state battery collaborations / investment by Automotive OEMs
1.6.Status and future of solid state battery business
1.7.Resources considerations
1.8.Analysis of different features of SSBs
1.9.Location overview of major solid-state battery companies
1.10.Solid-state battery partnerships
1.11.Summary of solid-state electrolyte technology
1.12.Comparison of solid-state electrolyte systems 1
1.13.Comparison of solid-state electrolyte systems 2
1.14.Current electrolyte challenges and possible solution
1.15.Technology summary of various companies
1.16.Solid-state battery value chain
1.17.Market forecast methodology
1.18.Assumptions and analysis of market forecast of SSB
1.19.Price forecast of solid state battery for various applications
1.20.Solid-state battery addressable market size
1.21.Solid-state battery forecast 2023-2033 by application (GWh)
1.22.Solid-state battery forecast 2023-2033 by application (market value)
1.23.Solid-state battery forecast 2023-2033 by technology (GWh)
1.24.Solid-state battery forecast 2023-2033 by technology (GWh)
1.25.Market size segmentation in 2023 and 2028
1.26.Solid-state battery forecast 2023-2033 for car plug in
2.1.What is a solid-state battery
2.1.2.Classifications of solid-state electrolytes
2.1.3.A solid future?
2.1.4.History of solid-state batteries
2.1.5.Milestone of solid-state battery development
2.1.6.Solid-state electrolytes
2.1.7.Requirements for solid-state electrolyte with multifunctions
2.2.Interests and Activities on Solid-State Batteries
2.2.1.How to design a good solid-state electrolyte
2.2.2.Energy storage evolvement
2.2.3.Solid-state battery publication dynamics
2.2.4.Regional efforts: USA
2.2.5.Regional efforts: Japan
2.2.6.Regional efforts: South Korea
2.2.7.Battery vendors' efforts - Samsung SDI
2.2.8.Samsung's commercial efforts
2.2.9.LG's contributions
2.2.10.Regional efforts: China
2.2.11.Interests in China Other Chinese player activities on solid state batteries
2.2.13.Chinese car player activities on solid-state batteries
2.2.14.Regional efforts: UK
2.2.15.Regional efforts: Others
2.2.16.Automakers' efforts - BMW
2.2.17.Mercedes-Benz's inhouse cell development
2.2.18.Automakers' efforts - Volkswagen
2.2.19.Volkswagen's investment in electric vehicle batteries
2.2.20.Automakers' efforts - Hyundai
3.1.1.Value propositions of solid-state batteries
3.1.2.Negative opinions on solid-state batteries
3.2.Better Safety?
3.2.1.Typical hypes of solid-state batteries
3.2.2.Safety consideration
3.2.3.Safety of liquid-electrolyte lithium-ion batteries
3.2.4.Modern horror films are finding their scares in dead phone batteries
3.2.5.Samsung's Firegate
3.2.6.LIB cell temperature and likely outcome
3.2.7.Safety aspects of Li-ion batteries
3.2.8.Are solid-state battery safer?
3.2.9.Conclusions of SSB safety
3.3.Higher Energy Density?
3.3.1.How do SSBs help with energy density
3.3.2.Energy density improvement
3.3.3.Solid state battery does not always lead to higher energy density
3.3.4.Specific energy comparison of different electrolytes
3.3.5.Alternative anode is required for high energy density
3.3.6.Lithium metal anode
3.3.7.Where is lithium?
3.3.8.How to produce lithium
3.3.9.Lithium hydroxide vs. lithium carbonate
3.3.10.Lithium-metal battery approaches
3.3.11.Failure story about metallic lithium anode
3.3.12.Lithium metal challenge
3.3.13.Dendrite formation: Current density
3.3.14.Dendrite formation: Pressure and temperature
3.3.15.Cycling preference for anode-free lithium metal cells
3.3.16.Solid-state battery with lithium metal anode
3.3.17.Lithium in solid-state batteries
3.3.18.Lithium metal foils
3.3.19.Silicon anode
3.3.20.Introduction to silicon anode
3.3.21.Value proposition of silicon anodes
3.3.22.Comparison between graphite and silicon
3.3.23.Solutions for silicon incorporation
3.3.24.Silicon anode for solid-state electrolyte
3.3.25.Conclusions of solid-state battery energy density
3.4.Fast Charging?
3.4.1.Fast charging at each stage
3.4.2.The importance of battery feature for fast charging
3.4.3.Fast charging for solid-state batteries
3.5.Reality of Solid-State Batteries
3.5.1.Analysis of different features of SSBs
4.1.1.Solid-state electrolyte landscape
4.2.Solid Polymer Electrolyte
4.2.1.LiPo batteries, polymer-based batteries, polymeric batteries
4.2.2.Types of polymer electrolytes
4.2.3.Electrolytic polymer options
4.2.4.Advantages and issues of polymer electrolytes
4.2.5.PEO for solid polymer electrolyte
4.2.6.Companies working on polymer solid state batteries
4.3.Solid Oxide Inorganic Electrolytes
4.3.1.Oxide electrolyte
4.3.3.Estimated cost projection for LLZO-based SSB
4.3.7.LiPON: construction
4.3.8.Players worked and working LiPON-based batteries
4.3.9.Cathode material options for LiPON-based batteries
4.3.10.Anodes for LiPON-based batteries
4.3.11.Substrate options for LiPON-based batteries
4.3.12.Trend of materials and processes of thin-film battery in different companies
4.3.13.LiPON: capacity increase
4.3.14.Comparison of inorganic oxide solid-state electrolyte
4.3.15.Thermal stability of oxide electrolyte with lithium metal
4.3.16.Companies working on oxide solid state batteries
4.4.Solid Sulfide Inorganic Electrolytes
4.4.1.LISICON-type 1
4.4.2.LISICON-type 2
4.4.4.Companies working on sulphide solid state batteries
4.5.Composite Electrolytes
4.5.1.The best of both worlds?
4.5.2.Common hybrid electrolyte concept
4.6.Other Electrolytes
4.7.Electrolyte analysis and comparison
4.7.1.Technology evaluation
4.7.2.Technology evaluation (continued)
4.7.3.Types of solid inorganic electrolytes for Li-ion
4.7.4.Advantages and issues with inorganic electrolytes 1
4.7.5.Advantages and issues with inorganic electrolytes 2
4.7.6.Advantages and issues with inorganic electrolytes 3
4.7.7.Dendrites prevention
4.7.8.Comparison between inorganic and polymer electrolytes 1
4.7.9.Comparison between inorganic and polymer electrolytes 2
5.1.Solid-State Battery Cell Design
5.1.1.Commercial battery form factors 1
5.1.2.Commercial battery form factors 2
5.1.3.Battery configurations 1
5.1.4.Battery configurations 2
5.1.5.Cell stacking options
5.1.6.Bipolar cells
5.1.7.ProLogium's bipolar design
5.1.8."Anode-free" batteries
5.1.9.Challenges of anode free batteries
5.1.10.Close stacking
5.1.11.Flexibility and customisation provided by solid-state batteries
5.1.12.Cell size trend
5.1.13.Cell design ideas
5.2.From Cell to Pack
5.2.1.Pack parameters mean more than cell's
5.2.2.The importance of a pack system
5.2.3.Influence of the CTP design
5.2.4.BYD's blade battery: overview
5.2.5.BYD's blade battery: structure and composition
5.2.6.BYD's blade battery: design
5.2.7.BYD's blade battery: pack layout
5.2.8.BYD's blade battery: energy density improvement
5.2.9.BYD's blade battery: thermal safety
5.2.10.BYD's blade battery: structural safety
5.2.11.Cost and performance
5.2.12.BYD's blade battery: what CTP indicates
5.2.13.CATL's CTP design
5.2.14.CATL's CTP battery evolution
5.2.15.CATL's Qilin Battery
5.2.16.From cell to pack for conventional Li-ions
5.2.17.Solid-state batteries: From cell to pack
5.2.18.Bipolar-enabled CTP
5.2.19.Conventional design vs. bipolar cell design
5.2.20.EV battery pack assembly
5.2.21.ProLogium: "MAB" EV battery pack assembly
5.2.22.MAB idea to increase assembly utilization
5.2.23.Solid-state battery: Competing at pack level
5.2.24.Business models between battery-auto companies
5.3.Battery Management System for Solid-State Batteries
5.3.1.The importance of a battery management system
5.3.2.Functions of a BMS
5.3.3.BMS subsystems
5.3.4.Cell control
5.3.5.Cooling technology comparison
5.3.6.BMS designs with different geometries
5.3.7.Qilin Battery's thermal management system
5.3.8.Thermal conductivity of the cells
5.3.9.Cell connection
5.3.10.BMS design considerations for SSBs
6.1.Timeline for mass production
6.2.Conventional Li-ion battery cell production process
6.3.The incumbent process: lamination
6.4.Conventional Li-ion battery manufacturing conditions
6.5.General manufacturing differences between conventional Li-ion and SSBs
6.6.Process chains for solid electrolyte fabrication
6.7.Process chains for anode fabrication
6.8.Process chains for cathode fabrication
6.9.Process chains for cell assembly
6.10.Exemplary manufacturing processes
6.11.Possible processing routes of solid-state battery components fabrication
6.12.Are mass production coming?
6.13.Pouch cells
6.14.Techniques to fabricate aluminium laminated sheets
6.15.Packaging procedures for pouch cells 1
6.16.Packaging procedures for pouch cells 2
6.17.Oxide electrolyte thickness and processing temperatures
6.18.Solid battery fabrication process
6.19.Manufacturing equipment for solid-state batteries
6.20.Industrial-scale fabrication of Li metal polymer batteries
6.21.Are thin film electrolytes viable?
6.22.Summary of main fabrication technique for thin film batteries
6.23.Wet-chemical & vacuum-based deposition methods for Li-oxide thin films
6.24.Current processing methods and challenges for mass manufacturing of Li-oxide thin-film materials
6.25.PVD processes for thin-film batteries 1
6.26.PVD processes for thin-film batteries 2
6.27.PVD processes for thin-film batteries 3
6.28.Ilika's PVD approach
6.29.Avenues for manufacturing
6.30.Toyota's approach 1
6.31.Toyota's approach 2
6.32.Hitachi Zosen's approach
6.33.Sakti3's PVD approach
6.34.Planar Energy's approach
6.35.Typical manufacturing method of the all solid-state battery (SMD type)
6.36.ProLogium's LCB manufacturing processes
6.37.ProLogium's manufacturing processes
6.38.Solid Power: Fabrication of cathode and electrolyte
6.39.Solid Power cell production
6.40.Pilot production facility of Solid Power
6.41.Qingtao's manufacturing processes
6.42.Yichun 1GWh facility equipment and capacity
6.43.Introduction to dry electrode manufacturing
6.44.Dry battery electrode fabrication
6.45.Dry electrode binders
6.46.Comparison between wet slurry and dry electrode processes
7.1.Solid-state electrolytes in lithium-sulphur batteries
7.2.Lithium sulphur solid electrode development phases
7.3.Solid-state electrolytes in lithium-air batteries
7.4.Solid-state electrolytes in metal-air batteries
7.5.Solid-state electrolytes in sodium-ion batteries 1
7.6.Solid-state electrolytes in sodium-ion batteries 2
7.7.Solid-state electrolytes in sodium-sulphur batteries 1
7.8.Solid-state electrolytes in sodium-sulphur batteries 2
8.1.Global policy summary on Li-ion battery recycling
8.2.Battery geometry for recycling
8.3.Lack of pack standardisation
8.4.LIB recycling approaches overview
8.5.Recycling categories
8.6.Recycling of SSBs
8.7.Recycling plan of ProLogium
9.1.1.Roadmap for battery cell technology
9.1.2.Technology roadmap according to Germany's NPE
9.1.3.Worldwide battery target roadmap
9.1.4.Solid-state battery roadmap to 2035
9.1.5.Material to cell roadmap
9.1.6.Cell to application roadmap
9.1.7.Global electrification commitments
9.1.8.Factors affecting the European market 1
9.1.9.Factors affecting the European market 2
9.1.10.Factors affecting the European market 3
9.2.Standards/Policies/Regulations for Automotive Applications
9.2.1.Global environment
9.2.2.Standardisation and legislative framework
9.2.3.Global Standardization and Regulation
9.2.4.International Organizations
9.2.5.Relevant National Organizations
9.2.6.UN 38.3
9.2.7.IEC - 61960
9.2.8.IEC 61960 - 3 &4
9.2.9.SAE J2464
9.2.10.UL 1642
9.2.11.UL 1642 - Further information: Scope of the Test
9.2.12.EUCAR and the Hazard Level
9.2.13.Common safety verification
10.1.Potential applications for solid-state batteries
10.2.Market readiness
10.3.Market readiness 2
10.4.Market readiness 3
10.5.Solid-state batteries for consumer electronics
10.6.Performance comparison: CEs & wearables
10.7.Batteries used in electric vehicles: example
10.8.Solid-state batteries for electric vehicles
11.1.1.Company summary
11.1.2.Performance summary of 24M's cell configuration
11.1.4.History of 24M
11.1.5.History of 24M (2)'s technology
11.1.7.Partnership history and target specifications
11.1.8.Manufacturing comparison
11.1.9.Streamlined production process vs. conventional solutions
11.1.10.Time saving of 24M technology
11.1.11.FREYR battery manufacturing development roadmap based on 24M's technology
11.1.12.Processes of manufacturing semi-solid cells
11.1.13.New platform enabled by 24M
11.1.14.Redefining manufacturing process by 24M's semi-automated pilot manufacturing line
11.1.16.Kyocera's commercial activities Dual Electrolyte System
11.1.18.Dual Electrolyte System proof of concept
11.1.19.Dual electrolyte enabling Li-metal: NMC622/SSE, 45 µm /lithium metal
11.1.20.Lithium coated copper foil for pre-lithiation commercial partners and investors's business model and funding product roadmap
11.1.24.FREYR's battery supply chain
11.1.25.Value chain of Freyr by using 24M technology
11.1.26.Emerging European battery supply chain facilitates full-cycle sustainability supply chain
11.1.28.Carbon reduction analysis
11.1.29.Battery cost breakdown by Freyr
11.1.30.Patent descriptions of 24M
11.1.31.SWOT analysis of 24M
11.1.32.Technology analysis
11.1.33.Technology analysis (2)
11.1.34.Manufacturing and supply chain analysis
11.1.35.Relationship and business analysis
11.2.1.Company introduction
11.2.2.Ampcera's technology
11.2.3.Solid-state composite
11.2.5.Key customers and partners
11.3.Blue Solutions / Bolloré
11.3.1.Introduction to Blue Solutions
11.3.2.Bolloré's LMF batteries
11.3.3.Automakers' efforts - Bolloré
11.3.4.Blue Solutions' technology development
11.4.1.BrightVolt batteries
11.4.2.BrightVolt electrolyte
11.4.3.PME enabled simplified back-end assembly
11.4.4.Battery testing data
11.4.5.Cell scaling
11.4.6.Manufacturing compatibility
11.5.2.CATL's energy density development roadmap
11.5.3.CATL's patents on solid-state batteries
11.6.CEA Tech
11.8.Cymbet Corporation
11.8.1.Introduction to Cymbet
11.8.3.Micro-battery products
11.9.Enovate Motors
11.10.Ensurge Micropower (Formerly Thin Film Electronics ASA )
11.10.1.Introduction to the company
11.10.2.Ensurge's execution plan
11.10.3.Ensurge's technology 1
11.10.4.Ensurge's technology 2
11.10.5.Anode-less design
11.10.6.Business model and market
11.10.7.Key customers, partners, and competitors
11.10.8.Company financials
11.11.1.Introduction to Excellatron
11.11.2.Thin-film solid-state batteries made by Excellatron
11.12.Factorial Energy
11.12.1.Company summary
11.12.2.Performance summary of Factorial Energy
11.12.3.Introduction to Factorial Energy
11.12.4.Company history
11.12.5.Factorial Energy's technology
11.12.6.Cycle life tests
11.12.7.Elevated and low temperature tests
11.12.8.Power test
11.12.9.Possible supply chain
11.12.10.SWOT analysis of Factorial Energy
11.12.11.Technology analysis
11.12.12.Technology analysis 2
11.12.13.Business analysis
11.13.2.Applications of FDK's solid state battery
11.13.3.FDK's SMD all-solid-state battery
11.14.1.Automakers' efforts - Fisker Inc.
11.15.1.Academic views - Fraunhofer Batterien
11.15.2.IKTS' sites working on ASSB
11.15.3.IKTS' technology
11.15.4.LLZO manufacturing processes
11.15.5.IKTS' EMBATT development
11.15.6.Work on LATP
11.16.Front Edge Technology
11.16.1.Ultra-thin micro-battery - NanoEnergy® (1)
11.16.2.Ultra-thin micro-battery - NanoEnergy® (2)
11.17.Ganfeng Lithium
11.17.1.Company summary
11.17.2.Performance summary of Ganfeng Lithium
11.17.3.Cell structure summary
11.17.4.Ganfeng Lithium's history (1)
11.17.5.Ganfeng Lithium's history (2)
11.17.6.Ganfeng Lithium's history (3)
11.17.7.Dongfeng demonstration
11.17.8.Ganfeng Lithium's SSB technology
11.17.9.Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering, CAS
11.17.10.Pilot produced battery: energy density
11.17.11.Pilot produced battery: rating capability
11.17.12.Pilot produced battery: temperature performance
11.17.13.Ganfeng's collaborative ecosystem
11.17.14.Global layout
11.17.15.Ganfeng's supply chain layout
11.17.16.R&D laboratory
11.17.17.Scientific research platform
11.17.18.Undertaken projects
11.17.20.Lithium metal production
11.17.21.Technology roadmap
11.17.22.Solid-state battery products: Solid-state lithium-ion battery
11.17.23.Solid-state battery products: Solid-State lithium metal cell
11.17.24.Solid-state battery products: Solid-state lithium battery module
11.17.25.Gangfeng Lithium's supply chain
11.17.26.Funding and clients
11.17.27.Financial details of 2020
11.17.28.Revenue by business lines
11.17.29.Revenue by geography
11.17.30.Revenue / profit over years
11.17.31.SWOT analysis of Ganfeng Lithium
11.17.32.Technology and manufacturing analysis
11.17.33.Supply chain analysis
11.17.34.Relationship and business analysis
11.18.Hitachi Zosen
11.18.1.Hitachi Zosen's solid-state electrolyte
11.18.2.Hitachi Zosen's batteries
11.18.3.Battery characteristics
11.19.1.Hydro-Québec 1
11.19.2.Hydro-Québec 2
11.19.3.Battery development plan
11.20.1.Introduction to Ilika
11.20.2.Ilika's microtechnology
11.20.3.Technology roadmap and potential applications
11.20.4.Ilika's business model
11.20.5.Ilika's manufacturing model
11.20.6.Ilika: Stereax
11.20.7.Ilika: Goliath
11.20.8.Goliath manufacturing
11.21.Infinite Power Solutions
11.21.1.Technology of Infinite Power Solutions
11.21.2.Cost comparison between a standard prismatic battery and IPS' battery
11.22.Ionic Materials
11.22.2.Technology and manufacturing process of Ionic Materials
11.23.Ion Storage Systems
11.23.1.Introduction to Ion Storage Systems
11.23.2.Cell technology
11.23.3.Ion Storage System's scaling process
11.23.4.Partners and expertise
11.24.JiaWei Renewable Energy
11.25.Johnson Energy Storage
11.25.1.JES' technology
11.26.Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering, CAS
11.27.Ohara Corporation
11.27.1.Lithium ion conducting glass-ceramic powder-01
11.27.2.LICGCTM PW-01 for cathode additives
11.27.3.Ohara's products for solid state batteries
11.27.4.Ohara / PolyPlus
11.27.5.Application of LICGC for all solid state batteries
11.27.6.Properties of multilayer all solid-state lithium ion battery using LICGC as electrolyte
11.27.7.LICGC products at the show
11.27.8.Manufacturing process of Ohara glass
11.28.1.Introduction to PolyPlus
11.28.2.PLE separator
11.28.3.PolyPlus projects
11.28.4.PLE-based batteries
11.28.5.Lithium seawater battery development plan
11.28.6.PolyPlus Glass Battery
11.28.7.Testing data
11.28.8.Cell fabrication
11.28.9.Hybrid Li-metal battery vs fully solid-state battery
11.29.Prieto Battery
11.30.Prime Planet Energy & Solutions
11.30.1.Company introduction
11.31.1.Company summary
11.31.2.Performance summary of ProLogium
11.31.3.Cell structure summary
11.31.4.Separator description
11.31.5.Company history
11.31.7.Technology highlights
11.31.8.Core technology: oxide electrolyte & ASM
11.31.9.Core technology: LCB
11.31.10.Core technology: MAB
11.31.11.Product types
11.31.12.Improvement of LCB electrical properties
11.31.13.Improvement of LCB cells
11.31.14.Cell operation temperature data
11.31.15.MAB pack progress roadmap
11.31.16.MAB idea to increase assembly utilization
11.31.17.ProLogium assembly CTP and CIP
11.31.18.Inlay structure for the MAB technology
11.31.19.ProLogium: EV battery pack assembly
11.31.20.ProLogium: "MAB" EV battery pack assembly
11.31.21.Cost reduction potential
11.31.22.ProLogium's manufacturing experience
11.31.23.Global production plan
11.31.25.Business model and markets
11.31.26.Supply chain of ProLogium
11.31.27.Patent summary
11.31.28.Adoption case study: Enovate Motors
11.31.29.SWOT analysis of ProLogium
11.31.30.Cell technology strengths
11.31.31.Cell technology weaknesses
11.31.32.Pack technology analysis
11.31.33.Manufacturing analysis
11.31.34.Supply chain analysis
11.31.35.Business analysis
11.32.Qingtao Energy Development
11.32.1.Company summary
11.32.2.Performance summary of Qingtao
11.32.3.Cell structure summary
11.32.4.History of Qingtao Energy Development 1
11.32.5.History of Qingtao Energy Development 2
11.32.6.History of QingTao Energy Development 3
11.32.7.Mass specific energy test
11.32.8.Qingtao business areas
11.32.9.Yichun 1GWh facility equipment and capacity
11.32.10.Manufacturing processes
11.32.11.Yichun 1GWh facility: major materials
11.32.12.Yichun 1GWh facility: major materials (continue)
11.32.13.Cell manufacturing
11.32.14.Qingtao battery pilot sample production facilities
11.32.15.Qingtao material formation/process R&D platform 1
11.32.16.Qingtao material formation/process R&D platform 2
11.32.17.Qingtao 1GWh facility
11.32.18.Qingtao's SSB products: Cells
11.32.19.Qingtao's SSB products: Packs 1
11.32.20.Qingtao's SSB products: Packs 2
11.32.21.Qingtao's SSB products: Electronics
11.32.22.Qingtao's SSB products: Energy storage systems
11.32.23.Qingtao's SSB products: Materials
11.32.24.Qingtao's solid-state battery supply chain
11.32.26.Board members
11.32.27.Commercialization plan of Qingtao
11.32.28.BAIC's prototype
11.32.29.Hozon Automobile's prototype
11.32.30.SWOT analysis of Qingtao
11.32.31.Analysis factors
11.32.32.Cell performance analysis
11.32.33.Manufacturing and supply chain analysis
11.32.34.Relationship and business analysis
11.33.1.Company summary
11.33.2.Performance summary of QuantumScape
11.33.3.Cell structure summary
11.33.4.Introduction to QuantumScape
11.33.5.Introduction to QuantumScape's technology
11.33.6.QuantumScape prototypes
11.33.7.QuantumScape's technology
11.33.8.Garnet electrolyte/catholyte
11.33.9.Summary of test analysis of QuantumScape's cells
11.33.10.Single layer battery cycle life test
11.33.11.Low temperature life test battery cycle life test battery cycle life test
11.33.14.Cycle life test for LFP batteries
11.33.15.Fast charging test
11.33.16.Dendrite resistance performance of the electrolyte
11.33.17.Power profile tested by VW fast charging
11.33.19.Low temperature test
11.33.20.Thermal stability test
11.33.21.Heath checks
11.33.22.Cycle life test
11.33.23.Cycle life test (continued)
11.33.24.Cycle life test (continued)
11.33.25.Summary of external cycle life test
11.33.26.Summary of cycle life test
11.33.27.Zero externally applied pressure cycle life
11.33.28.QuantumScape patent summary 1
11.33.29.QuantumScape patent summary 2
11.33.30.QuantumScape patent analysis 1
11.33.31.QuantumScape patent analysis 2
11.33.32.QuantumScape patent analysis 3
11.33.33.QuantumScape patent analysis 4
11.33.34.QuantumScape patent analysis 5
11.33.35.QuantumScape patent analysis 6
11.33.36.QuantumScape patent analysis 7
11.33.37.QuantumScape patent analysis 8
11.33.38.QuantumScape patent analysis 9
11.33.39.QuantumScape's manufacturing timeline
11.33.40.Key milestones
11.33.42.Key members in QuantumScape
11.33.43.Solid-state battery supply chain of QuantumScape
11.33.44.Funding and investors
11.33.45.SWOT analysis of QuantumScape
11.33.46.Features of garnet electrolyte in SSBs
11.33.47.Technology analysis: Strengths
11.33.48.Technology analysis: Weaknesses
11.33.49.Manufacturing and supply chain analysis
11.33.50.Relationship and business analysis
11.36.1.Company summary
11.36.2.Performance summary of SES
11.36.3.Cell structure summary
11.36.4.Company history 1
11.36.5.Company history 2 metrics of SES' technology
11.36.7.SES technology
11.36.8.Good lithium metal surface required
11.36.9.SES' electrolyte
11.36.10.SES electrolyte development roadmap for EV under C/3-C/3
11.36.11.SES electrolyte development
11.36.12.SES technology to prevent dendrite growth
11.36.13.SES technology to prevent dendrite growth (cont'd)
11.36.14.AI powered BMS safety algorithm
11.36.15.Cathode and cell assembly
11.36.16.Cell test data: 3-4 layers cell cycle life
11.36.17.Cell test data: 4Ah cell cycle life
11.36.18.Cell test data: 4Ah cell c-rate capability
11.36.19.Test data of Hermes cell
11.36.20.Apollo cell
11.36.21.Lithium metal foils
11.36.22.SES' demonstrated cell performance
11.36.23.Comparison of SES cell and old Li-metal cell, graphite-based Li-ion cell and Li-ion cell with silicon-graphite composite anode
11.36.24.Comparison among conventional Li-ion, solid-state Li-metal and SES hybrid Li-metal cells
11.36.25.SES' products
11.36.26.SES's lithium metal cell data
11.36.27.SES' view on the market
11.36.28.SES patents
11.36.29.Development of an OEM-ready battery
11.36.30.Manufacturing facility plan
11.36.31.SES roadmap
11.36.32.Battery supply chain for SES
11.36.33.The future of Li-metal / Li-ion supply chain
11.36.34.Customers & partners & investors
11.36.35.Partnership with GM, Hyundai, and Honda
11.36.36.Funding and financials merge transaction summary
11.36.38.SES board members
11.36.39.SWOT analysis of SES
11.36.40.Cell technology strengths
11.36.41.Cell technology weaknesses
11.36.42.Manufacturing and supply chain analysis
11.36.43.Relationship and business analysis
11.37.Solid Power
11.37.1.Company summary
11.37.2.Cell specifications
11.37.3.Solid Power cell configuration
11.37.4.History 1
11.37.5.History 2
11.37.6.Breaking energy density limit of Li-ion batteries
11.37.7.Solid Power's core technology
11.37.8.Solid Power's focus in the value chain
11.37.9.Company products
11.37.10.Solid Power's sulphide solid-state electrolyte
11.37.11.Solid Power test data
11.37.12.Solid Power test data (cont'd)
11.37.13.High-content silicon EV cell data
11.37.14.High-content silicon EV cell data (cont'd)
11.37.15.High-content silicon EV cell data (cont'd) Ah pouch cell data (cont'd)
11.37.17.Technologies on Solid Power product roadmap
11.37.18.Solid Power's technology roadmap
11.37.19.High-content silicon anode battery roadmap
11.37.20.Lithium metal anode battery roadmap
11.37.21.Product roadmap
11.37.22.Solid Power's cell roadmap
11.37.23.Prototype progress
11.37.24.Solid Power showed their samples
11.37.25.Commercialization roadmap
11.37.26.Solid Power's business model
11.37.27.Solid state battery supply chain of Solid Power
11.37.28.Solid Power's ASSB technology & partner ecosystem
11.37.29.Solid Power's flexible All-Solid-State Platform
11.37.30.Solid Power cost estimate
11.37.31.Defined path for cost reduction
11.37.32.Fabrication of cathode and electrolyte
11.37.33.Solid Power cell production
11.37.34.Pilot production facility
11.37.35.Management team
11.37.36.Upcoming milestones
11.37.38.Key partners & investors
11.37.39.Solid Power patents
11.37.40.SWOT analysis of Solid Power
11.37.41.Technology analysis: Strengths
11.37.42.Technology analysis: Weaknesses
11.37.43.Manufacturing and supply chain analysis
11.37.44.Relationship and business analysis
11.38.1.About imec
11.38.2.Imec's electrolyte
11.38.3.About SOLiTHOR
11.38.4.SOLiTHOR's technology
11.39.1.Solvay 1
11.39.2.Solvay 2
11.41.Taiyo Yuden
11.41.2.Battery characteristics
11.41.3.Pulse discharge performance
11.41.4.Available products
11.42.2.CeraCharge's performance
11.42.3.Main applications of CeraCharge
11.43.2.Composite solid-state electrolyte
11.44.1.Toyota's activities
11.44.2.Toyota's efforts
11.44.3.Toyota's prototype
11.45.WeLion New Energy Technology
11.45.1.Company summary
11.45.2.Performance summary of WeLion
11.45.3.Cell configuration summary
11.45.4.Company history
11.45.6.Progress of SSB research at IoP, CAS
11.45.7.WeLion's battery development history
11.45.8.Company presence
11.45.10.WeLion's core technologies 1
11.45.11.WeLion's core technologies 2
11.45.12.Core technology 1: Composite lithium anode: target rating and volume expansion issues
11.45.13.Core technology 2: Ionic conducting film
11.45.14.Core technology 3: In-situ solidification technology
11.45.15.SEM images of the lithium metal and electrolyte
11.45.16.Capacity / voltage performance of the battery
11.45.18.WeLion products
11.45.19.Products and application for EV
11.45.20.Hybrid liquid-solid battery performance
11.45.21.High energy density product performance
11.45.22.Possible value chain for WeLion
11.45.23.SWOT analysis of WeLion
11.45.24.Technology analysis
11.45.25.Supply chain, relationship and business analysis
12.1.Appendix: Background
12.1.1.Glossary of terms - specifications
12.1.2.Useful charts for performance comparison
12.1.3.Battery categories
12.1.4.Comparison of commercial battery packaging technologies
12.1.5.Actors along the value chain for energy storage
12.1.6.Primary battery chemistries and common applications
12.1.7.Numerical specifications of popular rechargeable battery chemistries
12.1.8.Battery technology benchmark
12.1.9.What does 1 kilowatthour (kWh) look like?
12.1.10.A-D sample definitions
12.1.11.Technology and manufacturing readiness
12.2.Appendix: Li-Ion Batteries
12.2.1.Food is electricity for humans
12.2.2.What is a Li-ion battery (LIB)?
12.2.3.Anode alternatives: Lithium titanium and lithium metal
12.2.4.Anode alternatives: Other carbon materials
12.2.5.Anode alternatives: Silicon, tin and alloying materials
12.2.6.Cathode alternatives: LCO & LFP
12.2.7.Cathode alternatives: NMC, NCA & LMO
12.2.8.Cathode alternatives: LNMO and Vanadium pentoxide
12.2.9.Cathode alternatives: Sulphur
12.2.10.Cathode alternatives: Oxygen
12.2.11.High energy cathodes require fluorinated electrolytes
12.2.12.How can LIBs be improved?
12.2.13.Milestone discoveries that shaped the modern lithium-ion batteries
12.2.14.Push, pull and trilemma in Li-ions
12.2.15.Lithium-ion supply chain
12.2.16.High-end commercial Li-ion battery specifications
12.2.17.Cathode performance comparison
12.2.18.Comparison of Li-ion batteries for automotive
12.2.19.Cell energy density comparison of different cathodes
12.3.Appendix:Why Is Battery Development so Slow?
12.3.1.What is a battery?
12.3.2.A big obstacle — energy density
12.3.3.Battery technology is based on redox reactions
12.3.4.Electrochemical reaction is essentially based on electron transfer
12.3.5.Electrochemical inactive components reduce energy density
12.3.6.The importance of an electrolyte in a battery
12.3.7.Cathode & anode need to have structural order
12.3.8.Failure story about metallic lithium anode
12.3.9.Appendix: Cathode and Cell Comparison for Conventional Lithium-Ion Batteries
12.3.10.Cathode performance comparison
12.3.11.Comparison of Li-ion batteries for automotive
12.3.12.Cell energy density comparison of different cathodes

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