The market for silicon anode material in Li-ion batteries is forecast to reach >US$24B by 2034.

Advanced Li-ion Battery Technologies 2024-2034: Technologies, Players, Forecasts

10-year forecasts of silicon-based and lithium metal anodes, 10-year cathode outlooks, technology benchmarking and performance characteristics, analysis and comparison of advanced Li-ion anodes and cathodes, player involvement and profiles

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The global market for Li-ion battery cells alone is forecast to reach US$380 billion by 2034, driven primarily by demand for battery electric cars and vehicles. Improvements to battery performance and cost are required to ensure widespread deployment of electric vehicles and to enable longer runtime and functionality of electronic devices and tools, leading to strong competition in the development of next-generation Li-ion technologies. This report provides in-depth analysis, trends and developments in advanced and next-generation Li-ion cell materials and designs, including silicon anodes, Li-metal anodes, cathode material and synthesis developments, an introduction to solid-state batteries, amongst other areas of development. Details of the key players and start-ups in each technology space are outlined and addressable markets and forecasts are provided for silicon, Li-metal, and cathode material shares.
Li-ion demand forecast. Source: IDTechEx.
Historically driven by demand for consumer electronic devices, the EV and stationary storage markets have become increasingly important. While numerous battery and energy storage options are becoming available for the stationary energy storage market, the high energy density requirements of electronic and portable devices, and electric cars and vehicles, ensures that Li-ion batteries will remain the dominant battery chemistry. However, improvements are still sought after. For consumer and portable devices, longer run-times and faster charging capabilities are needed to keep up with increasing computing power and offer greater functionality. For the potentially lucrative EV market, longer range, short charging times, and of course lower costs and prices are still key to widespread adoption. The battery electric car market is of course a key target for many battery technology developments, offering the opportunity to supply a market where battery demand is forecast to grow beyond 2700 GWh by 2030. Certainly, the development of advanced and next-generation Li-ion technologies will be critical to various sectors, as well as for battery companies aiming to succeed or maintain their place in the market.
Design schematics of lithium-based cell chemistries. Source: IDTechEx.
New anode materials offer the chance of significantly improved battery performance, particularly energy density and fast charge capability. Two of the most exciting material developments to Li-ion are the development and adoption of silicon anodes and Li-metal anodes, the latter often but not always in conjunction with solid-electrolytes. The excitement stems primarily from the possibility of these anode materials significantly improving energy density, where improvements of 30-40% over current state-of-the-art Li-ion cells are feasible. Enhancements to rate capability, safety, environmental profile, and even cost, are also being highlighted by developers. However, shifting from the use of silicon oxides as an additive to higher weight percentages, and the use of lithium-metal anodes have posed serious problems to battery cycle life and longevity, which has delayed and limited commercial adoption so far. This report covers and analyzes the solutions being developed and provides coverage of the various companies aiming to commercialize their high energy anode materials and designs. The report also provides coverage of high-rate anode materials based on metal oxides such as LTO and niobium anodes.
While new cathode materials are expected to provide improvements over incumbents and direct competitors, they are likely to be relatively small, and unlikely to push the performance envelope of Li-ion batteries significantly. Instead, cathode development can help to optimize and minimize the trade-off inherent in deploying one chemistry over another. Material costs and supply chain concerns also play a critical role in the development of next-generation cathodes materials. For example, companies continue to push nickel content in NMC cathodes to maximize performance and reduce cobalt reliance, LMFP cathodes offer a higher energy density than LFP whilst maintaining a similar cost profile, while Li-Mn-rich cathodes can provide similar energy densities to NMC materials whilst reducing cobalt and nickel content. IDTechEx's report provides an appraisal of the various next-generation Li-ion cathode materials, highlighting their respective strengths and weaknesses and the value proposition they offer, or could offer, to specific applications and markets.
Cell and battery design
Developments to cell and battery pack design can play a similarly important role in ongoing performance gains. At the cell level, electrode structure, current collector design, electrolyte additives and formulations, and the use of additives such as carbon nanotubes will continue to play a role in maximizing Li-ion performance across various applications. At the pack level, cell-to-pack designs are becoming increasingly popular for electric cars as a means to optimize energy density and are being developed by players such as BYD, CATL, and Tesla, amongst others. More innovative battery management systems and analytics also represents a key route to battery improvement, offering one of only a few ways to improve performance characteristics including energy density, rate capability, lifetime, and safety simultaneously - a feat that is notoriously difficult to achieve.
Current Li-ion materials processing and cell manufacturing is dominated by Asia and China. While the US and Europe in particular are now looking to develop and nurture their own battery supply chains, one route to capturing and domesticating value could be to lead the way in innovation and next-generation technology development. Here, the US and Europe fare slightly better. Looking at start-up companies by geography, as a proxy for innovation, and the US comes out as a leader in next generation technology with the inflation reduction act providing further impetus with the DOE also providing funding via the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law to companies and start-ups such as Sila Nano and Group14 Technologies. Europe is also home to a growing battery industry and start-up landscape, though it needs to be noted that development in Asia is likely under-represented given the stronger presence of major battery manufacturers and materials companies. Timelines and production plans from various players across different technology platforms are presented in the report alongside analysis of the cost impact of using new Li-ion materials. The report is complemented with a large number of company profiles covering company involvement in a particular technology.
Geographic distribution of battery start-up companies. Source: IDTechEx
IDTechEx's report provides an appraisal of the various next-generation Li-ion technologies being developed and commercialized. This report covers and analyzes many of the key technological advancements in advanced and next-generation Li-ion batteries, including silicon and lithium-metal anodes, manganese-rich cathodes, ultra-high nickel NMC, LMFP, as well as optimized cell and battery designs. Details on the key players and start-ups in each technology are outlined and addressable markets and forecasts are provided for next-generation anode and cathode materials.
Key aspects
This report provides the following information:
  • Introduction to Li-ion battery technologies.
  • Analysis of and appraisal advanced Li-ion technologies including: silicon anodes, lithium metal anodes, lithium titanate and niobates, high-manganese cathodes, ultra-high nickel NMC, LMFP.
  • Player coverage across anodes, cathodes and other cell developments (e.g. carbon nanotubes, electrolytes, electrode and cell structure, BMS).
  • Analysis of funding, activity, and commercialization into next-generation Li-ion technology development.
  • Discussion of markets and applications, battery demand forecasts, forecasts of anode and cathode splits.
Report MetricsDetails
Historic Data2020 - 2023
CAGRDemand for Li-ion batteries, by GWh, is forecast to grow at a CAGR of 15.5% from 2024-2034.
Forecast Period2024 - 2034
Forecast UnitsUS$, GWh, kt
Regions CoveredWorldwide
Segments CoveredSilicon anodes, Li-metal anodes, solid electrolytes, high manganese cathodes, high nickel cathodes, lithium manganese iron phosphate cathodes, CAM synthesis.
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Table of Contents
1.1.Advanced Li-ion technology key takeaways
1.2.Li-ion performance and technology timeline
1.3.Key technology developments
1.4.Silicon anode summary
1.5.Si-anode performance summary
1.6.Anode materials comparison
1.7.Silicon-anode company technologies and performance
1.8.Material opportunities from silicon anodes
1.9.Silicon anode value chain
1.10.Li-metal anodes
1.11.Li-metal battery developers
1.12.Comparison of solid-state electrolyte systems
1.13.SSB technology summary of various companies
1.14.Concluding remarks on solid-state batteries
1.15.Cathode development summary
1.16.Benefits of high and ultra-high nickel NMC
1.17.High-nickel CAM stabilisation
1.18.LMR-NMC cost profile
1.19.Cathode chemistry impact on lithium consumption
1.20.Advanced cathode chemistry comparison
1.21.Alternative cathode synthesis routes
1.22.Player involvement in advanced cathode technologies
1.23.Cell and battery design
1.24.Battery technologies - start-up activity
1.25.Battery technologies - regional start-up of activity
1.26.Battery technologies - level of regional activity
1.27.Battery technology start-ups - regional activity
1.28.Advanced Li-ion developers
1.29.Regional efforts
1.30.Battery technology comparison
1.31.Performance comparison by popular cell chemistries
1.32.Improvements to cell energy density and specific energy
1.33.Readiness level snapshot
1.34.Risks and challenges in new battery technology commercialisation
1.35.Risks and challenges in new battery technology commercialisation
1.36.BEV anode forecast (GWh)
1.37.BEV anode forecast (kt, US$B)
1.38.Advanced Li-ion anode forecast
1.39.BEV car cathode forecast (GWh)
1.40.BEV cathode forecast (GWh)
1.41.EV cathode forecast (GWh)
2.1.Defining the scope of advanced Li-ion batteries
2.2.Trends in the Li-ion market
2.3.What is a Li-ion battery?
2.4.Li-ion cathode materials - LCO and LFP
2.5.Li-ion cathode materials - NMC, NCA and LMO
2.6.Li-ion anode materials - graphite and LTO
2.7.Li-ion anode materials - silicon and lithium metal
2.8.Li-ion electrolytes
2.9.Li-ion value chain (US$)
2.10.Examples of new technology entry
3.1.1.Types of lithium battery by anode
3.1.2.Anode materials discussion
3.1.3.Anode materials discussion
3.1.4.Strengths and weaknesses of anode materials
3.1.5.Li-ion anode materials compared
3.1.6.Silicon Anode Technology and Performance
3.1.8.The promise of silicon
3.1.9.Alloy anode materials
3.1.10.The reality of silicon
3.1.11.Comparing silicon - a high-level overview
3.1.12.Solutions for silicon incorporation
3.1.13.Solutions for silicon incorporation
3.1.14.Key silicon anode solutions
3.1.15.Silicon-carbon composites
3.1.16.Silicon deposition
3.1.17.Silicon oxides and coatings
3.1.18.Manufacturing silicon anode material
3.1.19.Top Si-anode patent assignee topics
3.1.20.Top 3 patent assignee Si-anode technology comparison
3.1.21.Value proposition of high silicon content anodes
3.1.22.Cell energy density increases with silicon content
3.1.23.Strengths and weaknesses of anode materials
3.1.24.Silicon anodes offer significant benefits but also challenges
3.1.25.Key metrics for silicon anodes
3.1.26.Silicon-anode company technologies and performance
3.1.27.Cell specification data examples
3.1.28.Example cell performance data
3.1.29.Example cell performance data
3.1.30.Example anode material and half-cell performance data
3.1.31.Commercial silicon anode specification
3.1.32.Commercial silicon anode specification
3.1.33.Silicon anode material - Wacker Chemie
3.1.34.Silicon anode material - Umicore
3.1.35.Silicon anode performance
3.1.36.Silicon anode calendar life
3.1.37.Silicon anode cost benefits
3.1.38.Silicon anode cost potential
3.1.39.Silicon anode environmental benefits
3.1.40.Concluding remarks on Si-anode performance
3.1.41.Silicon Anode Market silicon anode player developments silicon anode player developments silicon anode player developments silicon anode player developments
3.1.46.Silicon anode deployment
3.1.47.Current silicon use
3.1.48.Silicon use in EVs
3.1.49.Silicon and LFP
3.1.50.Silicon in consumer devices
3.1.51.Established company interest in silicon anodes
3.1.52.Silicon-anode companies
3.1.53.Silicon-anode companies
3.1.54.Funding for silicon anodes continues
3.1.55.Silicon anode start-ups - funding
3.1.56.Investors into silicon anode start-ups
3.1.57.Investors into silicon anode start-ups
3.1.58.Investors into silicon anode start-ups
3.1.59.Regional Si-anode activity
3.1.60.Growth in silicon anode start-ups
3.1.61.Silicon anode production plans
3.1.62.Silicon anode production expanding
3.1.63.Development timelines
3.1.64.Silicon anode commercialisation timeline
3.1.65.Example timelines
3.1.66.Comments on commercialisation timelines
3.1.67.Strategic partnerships and agreements developing for silicon anode start-ups
3.1.68.Notable players for silicon EV battery technology
3.1.69.Concluding remarks on advanced silicon anode development
3.1.70.Silicon Anode Player Profile Examples
3.1.71.IDTechEx silicon anode company index
3.1.72.Silicon anodes - critical comparison
3.1.73.Silicon anodes - critical comparison
3.1.74.Amprius' technology
3.1.76.Enevate overview
3.1.77.Enevate's technology
3.1.78.Enovix background and technology
3.1.79.Enovix cell performance
3.1.80.Group14 Technologies
3.1.81.LeydenJar Technologies overview
3.1.82.LeydenJar's technology
3.1.84.Ionblox cell performance examples
3.1.86.Nanomakers nano silicon powder
3.1.87.Nexeon - patents
3.1.88.Nexeon - patents
3.1.90.Sila Nano
3.1.91.Silicon anode materials discussion
3.1.92.Concluding remarks on silicon anodes
3.2.Lithium-Metal Anodes
3.2.2.Solid-state battery and lithium metal anodes
3.2.3.Enabling Li-metal without solid-electrolytes
3.2.4.Li-metal anodes can increase battery energy density
3.2.5.Li-metal battery developers
3.2.7.SES technology
3.2.8.SES cell performance
3.2.9.Sion Power
3.2.10.Sion Power technology
3.2.12.Applications for Li-metal
3.2.13.The need for thin and cheap lithium foils
3.2.14.Li-metal corp
3.2.15.Pure Lithium Corporation
3.2.16.Pure Lithium's Li-foil electrode production
3.2.17.Impact of Li-metal anodes on lithium demand
3.2.18.Anode-less cell design
3.2.19.Anode-less lithium-metal cell benefits
3.2.20.Anode-less lithium-metal cell developers
3.2.21.Hybrid batteries could enable anode-free use
3.2.22.High energy Li-ion anode technology overview
3.2.23.Example timelines
3.2.24.Concluding remarks on Li-metal anodes
3.3.LTO/XNO (Lithium and Niobium Titanates)
3.3.1.Introduction to lithium titanate oxide (LTO)
3.3.2.Where will LTO play a role?
3.3.3.Comparing LTO and graphite
3.3.4.Commercial LTO comparisons
3.3.5.Lithium titanate to niobium titanium oxide
3.3.6.Niobium based anodes - Nyobolt
3.3.7.Vanadium oxide anodes - TyFast
3.3.8.Overview of LTO, niobium and vanadium based anodes
4.1.1.Cathode introduction
4.1.2.Overview of Li-ion cathodes
4.2.High and Ultra-High Nickel NMC
4.2.1.High-nickel layered oxides definition and nomenclature
4.2.2.Benefits of high and ultra-high nickel NMC
4.2.3.Benefits of high and ultra-high nickel NMC
4.2.4.High-Ni / Ni-rich cycle life and stability issues
4.2.5.Key issues with high-nickel layered oxides
4.2.6.Routes to high nickel cathode stabilisation
4.2.7.Routes to high-nickel cathodes
4.2.8.Single crystal cathodes
4.2.9.Single crystal performance
4.2.10.High-nickel CAM stabilisation
4.2.12.EcoPro BM
4.2.14.High-nickel products
4.2.15.Ultra-high nickel cathode timelines
4.2.16.Outlook on high-Ni - commentary
4.3.Zero-Cobalt NMx
4.3.1.Zero-cobalt NMx
4.3.2.NMA cathode
4.3.3.High-nickel NMA
4.3.4.Extending mid-Ni voltage
4.3.5.Impact of high-voltage NMC operation
4.3.6.Impact of high-voltage operation
4.4.Lithium-Manganese-Rich (Li-Mn-Rich, LMR-NMC)
4.4.1.Lithium-manganese-rich, over-lithiated, LMR-NMC cathodes
4.4.2.Overview of Li-Mn-rich cathodes LMR-NMC
4.4.3.Stabilising lithium and manganese-rich
4.4.4.LMR-NMC energy density
4.4.5.LMR-NMC cost profile
4.4.6.Lithium-manganese-rich cathode developers
4.4.7.Commercial lithium-manganese-rich cathode development
4.4.8.Lithium-manganese-rich LXMO
4.4.9.Hybrid battery chemistry design for manganese-rich
4.4.10.Lithium-manganese-rich cathode SWOT
4.5.1.High-voltage spinel cathode LNMO
4.5.2.LNMO development
4.5.3.LNMO performance
4.5.4.LNMO performance impact
4.5.5.LNMO material intensity
4.5.6.Cathode chemistry impact on lithium consumption
4.5.7.LNMO cost impact
4.5.8.LNMO cathode SWOT
4.6.1.LMFP cathodes
4.6.2.Lithium manganese iron phosphate LMFP
4.6.3.LMFP performance and cost impact
4.6.4.LMFP performance characteristics
4.6.5.LFMP battery performance
4.6.6.LMFP commercial development
4.6.7.LMFP outlook
4.6.8.LMFP cathode SWOT
4.7.Alternative Cathode Production Routes
4.7.1.Alternative cathode synthesis routes
4.7.2.Conventional NMC synthesis
4.7.3.Conventional LFP synthesis
4.7.4.Dry cathode synthesis
4.7.5.Alternative synthesis routes Inc Energy technology
4.7.8.Nano One
4.7.9.Nano One Materials technology
4.7.12.Novonix cathode technology
4.7.13.HiT Nano
4.7.14.HiT Nano technology
4.7.16.Xerion cathode
4.7.17.Cathode synthesis environmental impact
4.7.18.Alternative cathode production companies
4.7.19.New cathode synthesis outlook
4.7.20.Recycled cathodes
4.7.21.Cathode recycling developments
4.7.22.Recycled CAM
4.8.1.Concluding remarks on cathode development
4.8.2.Key cathode material developments overview
4.8.3.Future cathode prospects
4.8.4.Future cathode technology overview
4.8.5.Cathode comparisons
4.8.6.Player advanced cathode technologies
4.8.7.Advanced cathode material players
4.8.8.Cathode material addressable markets
5.1.Introduction to solid-state batteries
5.2.Classifications of solid-state electrolyte
5.3.Comparison of solid-state electrolyte systems
5.4.Solid-state electrolyte technology approach
5.5.Analysis of SSB features
5.6.Summary of solid-state electrolyte technology
5.7.Current electrolyte challenges and solutions
5.8.Solid electrolyte material comparison
5.9.SSB company commercial plans
5.10.Solid state battery collaborations /investment by Automotive OEMs
5.11.Location overview of major solid-state battery companies
5.12.Technology summary of various companies
5.13.Solid-state - Blue Solutions
5.14.Solid-state - Prologium
5.15.Pack considerations for SSBs
5.16.Concluding remarks on solid-state batteries
6.1.Cell Design and Inactive Materials tabless cell
6.1.2.Increasing cell sizes
6.1.3.Bipolar cell design
6.1.4.Thick format electrodes
6.1.5.Thick format electrodes - 24m
6.1.6.Dual electrolyte Li-ion
6.1.7.Multi-layer electrodes - EnPower
6.1.8.Impact of multi-layer electrode design
6.1.9.Prieto's 3D cell design (1/2)
6.1.10.Prieto's 3D cell design (2/2)
6.1.11.Addionics 3D current collector
6.1.12.Electrolyte decomposition
6.1.13.Electrolyte additives 1
6.1.14.Electrolyte additives 2
6.1.15.Electrolyte additives 3
6.1.16.Electrolyte developments
6.1.17.Electrolyte patent topic comparisons - key battery players
6.1.18.Electrolyte patent topic comparisons - key electrolyte players
6.1.19.Carbon nanotubes in Li-ion
6.1.20.Key Supply Chain Relationships
6.1.21.Results showing impact of CNT use in Li-ion electrodes
6.1.22.Results showing SWCNT improving in LFP batteries
6.1.23.Improved performance at higher C-rate
6.1.24.Significance of dispersion in energy storage
6.1.25.Graphene coatings for Li-ion
6.2.Evolving Cell Performance
6.2.1.Energy density by cathode
6.2.2.BEV cell energy density trend
6.2.3.Cell energy density trend
6.2.4.Cell performance specification examples
6.2.5.Comparing commercial cell chemistries
6.3.Battery Packs and BMS
6.3.1.What is Cell-to-pack?
6.3.2.Drivers and Challenges for Cell-to-pack
6.3.3.What is Cell-to-chassis/body?
6.3.4.BYD Blade battery
6.3.5.CATL Cell to Pack
6.3.6.Cell-to-pack and Cell-to-body Designs Summary
6.3.7.Gravimetric Energy Density and Cell-to-pack Ratio
6.3.8.Volumetric Energy Density and Cell-to-pack Ratio
6.3.9.Cell-to-pack or modular?
6.3.10.Outlook for Cell-to-pack & Cell-to-body Designs
6.3.11.Bipolar batteries
6.3.12.Bipolar-enabled CTP
6.3.13.ProLogium: "MAB" EV battery pack assembly
6.3.14.Electric vehicle hybrid battery packs
6.3.15.CATL hybrid Li-ion and Na-ion pack concept
6.3.16.CATL hybrid pack designs
6.3.17.Our Next Energy
6.3.18.High energy plus high cycle life
6.3.19.Nio's dual-chemistry battery
6.3.20.Nio's design to improve thermal performance
6.3.21.Nio hybrid battery operation
6.3.22.Fuel cell electric vehicles are hybrid systems
6.3.23.Hybrid battery + supercapacitor
6.3.24.Concluding remarks
6.3.25.BMS innovation overview
6.3.26.Improvements to battery performance from BMS development
6.3.27.BMS introduction
6.3.28.Functions of a BMS
6.3.29.Innovations in BMS
6.3.30.Advanced BMS activity
6.3.31.Fast charging limitations
6.3.32.Impact of fast-charging
6.3.33.Fast charging protocols
6.3.34.Electric car charging profiles
6.3.35.BMS solutions for fast charging
6.3.36.Development of wireless BMS
6.3.37.Analog Devices wBMS
6.3.38.Wireless BMS patent example
6.3.39.Wireless BMS pros and cons
6.3.40.Concluding remarks on BMS development
6.4.Fast-Charging Batteries
6.4.1.Fast charging at different scales
6.4.2.Why can't you just fast charge?
6.4.3.Rate limiting factors at the material level
6.4.4.EV fast charging
6.4.5.Fast-charging battery developments
6.4.6.Fast charge design hierarchy
6.4.7.Fast-charging battery developments
6.4.8.Fast charging batteries - outlook discussion
7.1.Total addressable markets
7.2.Total addressable markets (GWh)
7.3.BEV car cathode forecast (GWh)
7.4.BEV cathode forecast (GWh)
7.5.EV cathode forecast (GWh)
7.6.Silicon anode forecast methodology
7.7.BEV anode forecast (GWh)
7.8.BEV anode forecast (kt, $B)
7.9.EV Anode forecast (GWh)
7.10.EV anode forecast (GWh, kt)
7.11.Consumer devices Anode forecast (GWh, ktpa)
7.12.Consumer devices Anode forecast (GWh, kt)
7.13.Advanced anode forecast (GWh)
7.14.Advanced anode forecast (GWh, kt, $B)
8.1.6K Energy
8.2.6K Energy
8.5.Brill Power
8.6.BTR New Material Group
8.7.BYD Auto
8.8.CENS Materials
8.9.Echion Technologies
8.10.EcoPro BM
8.12.EnPower Inc
8.13.Forsee Power
8.14.Ganfeng Lithium
8.17.Group14 Technologies
8.18.Group14 Technologies
8.19.IBU-tec Advanced Materials AG
8.21.Ionic Mineral Technologies
8.23.Leclanché: Heavy-Duty EV Battery Systems
8.24.Leyden-Jar Technologies
8.25.LeydenJar Technologies
8.26.Li-Metal Corp
8.27.Nano One Materials
8.29.New Dominion Enterprises
8.30.NIO (Battery)
8.31.OneD Battery Sciences
8.32.Our Next Energy (ONE)
8.33.Prieto Battery
8.34.Qingtao Energy Development
8.37.Sila Nanotechnologies
8.38.Sion Power
8.39.Solid Power
8.40.South 8 Technologies
8.42.Stratus Materials
8.44.WAE Technologies
8.45.Yoshino Technology Inc

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Report Statistics

Slides 413
Companies 45
Forecasts to 2034
Published Apr 2024
ISBN 9781835700303

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