The market for DNA sequencing will reach US$12.9 billion by 2033

DNA Sequencing 2023-2033: Technologies, Markets, and Forecasts

Covering Sanger sequencing, next-generation sequencing (NGS), SMRT sequencing and nanopore sequencing. Analysis of technologies, market landscape, and opportunities. Forecast of DNA sequencing market 2023-2033.

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This report covers the DNA sequencing industry, discussing the key technologies and markets involved. The report covers Sanger, Next-Generation (NGS), and nanopore sequencing, benchmarking these against each other on key metrics required by leading applications. The report includes in-depth analyses of DNA sequencing applications ranging from population genomics and companion diagnostics to forensics, identifying the requirements for each. Barriers of entry to the market and relevant challenges are analysed.
Since its inception, DNA sequencing has brought about major advancements in our understanding of biology. The DNA sequence encodes the biological information used by cells to develop and operate, and understanding the sequence of DNA is key to understanding the function of genes and other parts of the genome. The breadth of information this technology can offer has the potential to revolutionize healthcare, drug discovery, and many other fields. The importance of DNA sequencing has been further emphasized by the COVID-19 pandemic, which highlighted the need for infrastructure to effectively track and monitor outbreaks - a task well suited to DNA sequencing.
DNA sequencing technology has progressed in leaps and bounds over the years. The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) in 2004 lead to a rapid decrease in the costs of sequencing, with this reduction of cost far outpacing Moore's law. As a noteworthy example, market leader Illumina managed to lower the cost of a human whole genome sequence from an estimated US$1M in 2007, to US$1k in 2014. This drastic reduction of cost has led to a meteoric expansion of the sequencing market, with the number of related academic publications rising by more than 15 times between 2004 to 2014.
However, these developments have since slowed. The declining costs in sequencing have since tailed off, and technological developments have slowed. While this may be in part due to the difficulty of improving existing technology, a prominent reason for the slow progress has been a lack of competition in the industry.
Despite this, major changes may be approaching. The recent entry of third-generation sequencing technology into the market has served to reinvigorate the market and intensify competition, with their promise of ultra-long reads and real-time sequencing. The greater insight these devices can bring, along with their promise of further lowering costs of whole-genome sequencing, could lead to a new age of personalized medicine and greatly expand the sequencing market, bringing in the next revolution of DNA sequencing. Several significant recent developments have also been observed in the NGS market itself. Multiple start-ups have emerged, each with the aim of further lowering the costs of and improving the accuracy of sequencing. The imminent expiry of several key patents of a major player will also allow China-based genomics giant BGI to enter the US sequencing market, further escalating competition.
In this report, IDTechEx discusses the technologies involved in DNA sequencing. The report provides in-depth analyses of the sequencing methods employed by key players in the sequencing industry, including:
  • Sanger sequencing
  • Reversible terminator sequencing
  • Pyrosequencing
  • Proton detection sequencing
  • Sequencing-by-ligation
  • Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing
  • Nanopore sequencing
These technologies are benchmarked against each other to provide a comprehensive understanding of the technological landscape. Comparisons of sequencing platforms are also used to identify business strategies of various players, along with several unmet needs for current instruments.
Of the sequencing technologies discussed above, the third generation nanopore sequencing method is of particular interest. Nanopore sequencing can provide unprecedented read lengths, far exceeding that of any other sequencing method. However, what may be one of the most compelling arguments for nanopore sequencing is the that they may remove the need for many of the reagents needed for sequencing today; this could help significantly lower the cost of DNA sequencing. As such, this report explores the technology for the different components of nanopore sequencing in depth. A prominent drawback for nanopore sequencers today is their comparative lack of accuracy; this report analyzes current research directions for mitigation of this problem, along with addressing several further drawbacks of nanopore sequencing.
The report goes on to describe the various applications and business models for DNA sequencing, identifying the current and potential usage of sequencing in each. The requirements for sequencing instruments across a variety of applications are considered and discussed to help readers better identify suitable markets for a given sequencing platform. The report provides insight into the barriers of entry and challenges faced for current and prospective players, along with an analysis of the business models employed by various players across the entire industry. The report concludes by forecasting the future of the DNA sequencing market, covering the revenue forecast by market segment and by sequencing device generation up to 2033.
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Table of Contents
1.1.Executive introduction
1.2.Use cases of sequencing
1.3.Key industry drivers for sequencing
1.4.Sequencing instrument roadmap
1.5.Comparing sequencing methods
1.6.Technological drivers for sequencing
1.7.Challenges of DNA sequencing
1.8.DNA sequencing instrument market
1.9.Barriers of entry to the DNA instrument market
1.10.Potential differentiating factors for sequencing
1.11.NGS: notable technology trends and developments
1.12.Potential improvements to nanopore sequencers
1.13.Developmental trends for NGS and third-generation sequencing
1.14.Key players in DNA sequencing by business model
1.15.Requirements of sequencing platforms in different applications
1.16.DNA sequencing services
1.17.Market breakdown by segment and players
1.18.Global DNA sequencing revenue by market segment (2014-2033)
1.19.DNA sequencing forecast revenue by market segment (2022-2033)
1.20.Global revenue by sequencing device generation (2014-2033)
1.21.Forecast revenue by sequencing device generation
2.1.What is DNA?
2.2.DNA sequencing
2.3.DNA sequencing: timeline
2.4.The history of the sequencing market
2.5.The Human Genome Project
2.6.Costs of DNA sequencing have fallen dramatically
2.7.Use cases of sequencing
2.8.Key industry drivers for sequencing
2.9.Technological drivers for sequencing
2.10.Challenges of DNA sequencing
3.1.1.Sequencing instrument roadmap
3.2.First generation sequencing
3.2.1.First-generation sequencing: Sanger sequencing
3.2.2.Key players in Sanger sequencing
3.2.4.Thermo Fisher Scientific
3.2.5.Sanger sequencing: Outlook
3.3.Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS)
3.3.1.Next-generation sequencing (NGS): introduction
3.4.1.NGS approaches: Sequencing-by-synthesis
3.4.3.Illumina: workflow
3.4.4.Cluster generation
3.4.5.Reversible terminator sequencing
3.4.6.Illumina: Sequencing platforms
3.4.7.Pyrosequencing: process
3.4.9.Roche: Efforts in DNA sequencing
3.4.10.Proton detection sequencing: process
3.4.11.Thermo Fisher: Ion Torrent
3.4.12.ISFET sensors in Ion Torrent chips
3.4.13.Element Biosciences
3.4.14.Element Biosciences: Technology
3.4.15.Ultima Genomics
3.4.16.Ultima Genomics: Technology
3.4.17.Ultima Genomics: Chemistry
3.4.18.GenapSys: a cautionary tale of sequencing start-ups
3.5.1.NGS approaches: Sequencing-by-ligation
3.5.2.Applied Biosystems/Thermo Fisher: SOLiD (I)
3.5.3.Applied Biosystems/Thermo Fisher: SOLiD (II)
3.5.4.Nanoball sequencing
3.5.5.BGI Genomics: DNBSEQ
3.6.Third generation sequencing
3.6.1.Third generation sequencing
3.6.2.Single molecule real-time sequencing: introduction
3.6.3.Pacific Biosciences (PacBio)
3.6.4.PacBio: Workflow
3.6.5.PacBio: SWOT analysis
3.6.6.Nanopore sequencing: overview
3.6.7.Structure of a nanopore sequencer
3.6.8.Why is nanopore sequencing important?
3.6.9.Nanopore sequencing: operational principle
3.6.10.Adaptive sampling
3.6.11.Patent and research trends in nanopore sequencing
3.7.Biological nanopores
3.7.1.Biological nanopores: composition
3.7.2.Comparison of protein characteristics
3.7.3.Biological nanopores: Manufacturing methods
3.7.4.Oxford Nanopore Technologies: Overview
3.7.5.Oxford Nanopore Technologies: Patents
3.7.6.Oxford Nanopore Technologies: Business model
3.7.7.Oxford Nanopore Technologies: Products
3.7.9.Genia Technologies: Technology and patents
3.7.10.Stratos Genomics: Technology and patents
3.7.11.Qitan Technology
3.7.12.Biological nanopores: strengths and weaknesses
3.8.Solid-state nanopores
3.8.1.Solid-state nanopores: overview
3.8.2.Graphene nanopores
3.8.3.Manufacturing methods: nanopore fabrication
3.8.4.Manufacturing method: membrane thinning
3.8.5.Comparison of manufacturing techniques
3.8.6.Controlled dielectric breakdown shows several advantages over focused beam etching
3.8.8.Hitachi: patents
3.8.9.What is stopping solid-state nanopores?
3.8.10.IBM: DNA transistor
3.9.Alternative structures for nanopore sequencers
3.9.1.The motivation for alternative approaches to nanopore sequencing
3.9.2.Plasmonic nanopores (I)
3.9.3.Plasmonic nanopores (II)
3.9.4.Base4 Innovation
3.9.5.Hybrid nanopores: overview
3.9.6.Sequencing by electronic tunnelling/SBET (I)
3.9.7.Sequencing by electronic tunnelling/SBET (II)
3.9.8.Nabsys: genome mapping via nanochannels
3.9.9.Nabsys: Technology
3.9.10.Field effect transistor (FET) - based nanopores
3.9.12.Research trends in alternative nanopore structures
3.9.13.Technological readiness levels
3.9.14.Is it necessary to go beyond conventional nanopores?
3.9.15.Accuracy and reproducibility
3.9.16.Can alternative nanopore structures solve the reproducibility problem?
3.10.Computational data analysis in nanopore sequencing
3.10.1.The importance of machine learning in nanopore sequencing
3.10.2.Basecallers: networks and components
3.10.3.Basecallers: current and future status
3.10.4.Basecallers: Training
3.10.5.Basecaller algorithms: Segmentation
3.10.6.Hidden Markov Models: Introduction
3.10.7.Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN): Introduction
3.10.8.Oxford Nanopore Technologies: Guppy
3.10.9.Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN): Introduction
3.10.10.Basecallers: timeline
3.10.11.Why are there so many open-source basecallers?
3.10.12.Basecallers: benchmarking*
3.10.16.The advantages of open-source
3.10.17.Post-sequencing correction
3.10.19.The compromise between speed and accuracy
3.10.20.Other IDTechEx reports on AI in healthcare
3.11.Technology: Discussions
3.11.1.A comparison of sequencing instruments (I)
3.11.2.A comparison of sequencing instruments (II)
3.11.3.Comparing sequencing methods
3.11.4.The importance of cost and accuracy
3.11.5.Developmental trends for NGS and third-generation sequencing
3.11.6.Identifying business strategies by analysis of CAPEX and throughput
3.11.7.Use of each sequencing platform in research
3.11.8.Historic revenue and market share by device generation
3.11.9.Third-generation sequencing: comparisons
3.11.10.Potential improvements to nanopore sequencers
3.11.11.Market share of sequencing instruments
3.11.12.Illumina: patent expiry and litigation
3.11.13.Is a major market shakeup approaching?
4.1.Business models
4.1.1.Key players in DNA sequencing by business model
4.1.2.Consumables form the bulk of the sequencing market
4.1.3.Hardware for supporting the sequencing process
4.1.4.DNA barcoding: an introduction Genomics
4.1.6.DNA sequencing services
4.1.7.Sequencing-as-a-service (SaaS)
4.1.10.AGTC Genomics
4.1.11.Certification programs for SaaS providers
4.1.13.Direct-to-consumer (DTC) tests
4.2.DNA sequencing: applications
4.2.1.Sequencing in research
4.2.2.The route to healthcare adoption
4.2.3.DNA sequencing in molecular diagnostics (MDx)
4.2.4.Current and potential impact of DNA sequencing across the diagnostics market
4.2.5.Cancer research and oncology
4.2.6.Companion diagnostics (CDx) in cancer treatment
4.2.7.A list of FDA-approved sequencing-based CDx tests
4.2.8.GRAIL: early cancer detection through DNA sequencing
4.2.9.Important considerations for sequencing in oncology
4.2.11.Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT)
4.2.12.NIPT: Usage and regulations
4.2.13.US regulations for diagnostics: CLIA categorizations
4.2.14.DNA sequencing for infectious disease diagnosis
4.2.15.Requirements for disease diagnosis
4.2.16.Public health through population genomics
4.2.17.Population genomics projects
4.2.18.Disease outbreak surveillance
4.2.19.Related IDTechEx reports
4.2.20.DNA sequencing in food safety
4.2.21.Drug discovery
4.2.22.DNA sequencing in cell and gene therapy
4.2.25.Crop biotechnology
4.2.26.Genetic engineering in agriculture
4.2.27.The scope of synthetic biology is vast
4.2.28.Related IDTechEx reports
4.2.29.DNA digital data storage: introduction
4.2.30.GenScript Biotech Corporation
4.2.31.DNA digital data storage: opportunities and challenges
4.3.DNA sequencing markets: Discussion
4.3.1.Barriers of entry to the DNA instrument market
4.3.2.Potential differentiating factors for sequencing
4.3.3.Requirements of sequencing platforms in different applications
4.3.4.Illumina: a case study
4.3.5.Implications of Illumina's first mover advantage
4.3.6.Illumina: applications for each platform
4.3.7.Illumina: efforts in the sequencing market.
4.3.8.Market breakdown by segment and players
4.3.9.The potential for sequencing-as-a-service
5.1.Forecast methodology
5.2.Global DNA sequencing revenue by market segment (2014-2033)
5.3.Historic DNA sequencing revenue by market segment (2014-2021)
5.4.DNA sequencing forecast revenue by market segment (2022-2033)
5.5.Global revenue by sequencing device generation (2014-2033)
5.6.Forecast revenue by sequencing device generation
5.7.Contact IDTechEx

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