Electric construction vehicles a ~US$150 billion market in 2043, equal to 2022's non-EV market

Electric Vehicles in Construction 2023-2043

Technical analysis of electric vehicles for construction, including: electric mini-excavators, electric excavators, electric loaders, telehandlers, and more. 20-year forecasts of units, GWh demand and revenue, by region and vehicle type.

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IDTechEx's report "Electric Vehicles in Construction 2023-2043" provides deep and granular analysis into this fast-growing industry. More than 100 electric construction machines have been analyzed to reveal trends in battery sizing, charging, vehicle power, pricing, and more. These technical trends are explored in detail throughout this report.
The electric construction machine market is in its nascent stages. However, it will benefit from other sectors having already gone through electrification and will be able to accelerate quickly with existing supply chains for batteries, motors, and other electric vehicle components that it will need to make this transition. OEMs are moving quickly to electrify their product ranges. This has started with mini-electric excavators but is now progressing to larger machines. This report considers OEM activities, policy drivers, and potential total cost of ownership savings to predict a 10-year CAGR of 38%, and growth to an electric construction machine market value of ~$150 billion in 2043. This will put the construction industry on target to hit international carbon neutrality goals by 2050.
Electric mini-excavators are taking-off
Mini-excavators are the third largest segment by volume in the world, and the largest segment in Europe. With its smaller size necessitating reasonably sized batteries, it has been a low hanging fruit for the construction industry to begin their electrification journey. In 2023 six out of the top ten largest construction OEMs, including Caterpillar, Komatsu, Kubota, and Hitachi either had a production electric mini-excavator, or had a concept or prototype. JCB and Volvo are companies with examples of series production electric mini-excavators and have helped to kick-start the electric mini-excavator market. Both of these have their own targets to reduce emissions but will also be responding to market demand.
Electric mini excavators offer all the performance of diesel variants but with some significant advantages. Firstly, it improves local air quality and more importantly the air quality for the operator who will be exposed to high concentrations of exhaust gases. The operator will also benefit from reduced noise, reduced vibration, and improved safety through better communication with other site workers thanks to the machines lower noise. The electric motors will also give more precise control over the machine, and in the long term, aid the integration of autonomous features, such as automated digging.
More electric machines are coming, and they are getting larger
With the electric mini-excavator market becoming established, OEMs are already moving onto larger machines. Large excavators with operating weights of more than 6-tonne, and similarly sized loaders, are the two areas where OEMs like Caterpillar, John Deere, XCMG, Komatsu, Volvo, and LiuGong are looking to electrify next. Loaders and excavators make up nearly 55% of construction vehicle sales by volume. Excavators are the largest by volume, and with their increased size comes higher prices, meaning they also dominate revenue.
Chinese OEMs in particular have shown interest in electrifying larger excavators and installing large batteries. One example covered in this report uses a 525kWh battery and double gun-DC charging to replenish this enormous battery in just 2 hours. However, the biggest battery IDTechEx has scene in an excavator is 700kWh from a Japanese OEM also covered in this report.
Within China, LFP appears to be the cell of choice for these larger systems, which makes sense given its lower cost and the vehicles not being sensitive to the extra weight. Meanwhile, Europe has tended to go with NMC as its cell of choice for batteries in electric construction machines. NMC offers better performance, but at additional cost. This report goes into detail on the trade-offs between NMC and LFP relating to construction, while also explaining how lithium-ion battery price reductions can sway the balance between choosing an electric construction machine, or a diesel.
Adoption will likely be driven by reduced TCO rather than policy
On an international scale, construction emissions are not at the forefront of governments concerns in their goals to address global warming and GHG emissions. The construction machine industry is only responsible for 1.1% of GHG emissions and will likely be one of the last vehicle types to get targeted by internal combustion ban policies. On a local scale, countries like Norway, and the Netherlands have shown some activity in tackling emissions from construction vehicles. These are mostly focused on local issues, like local air quality, and reducing noise from building sites.
A better incentive for the adoption, and the mechanism needed to establish growth in the electric construction machine market will be total cost of ownership savings. Construction machinery can burn through a lot of fuel. For example, IDTechEx's analysis shows that over its lifetime a 20-tonne excavator will cost around $120,000 just to fuel. On top of that is maintenance of a large diesel engine, which can also amount to tens of thousands of dollars over the vehicle's lifetime. This creates a large potential window for generating savings through the use of electric vehicles. However, this US$120k can quickly be consumed by the cost of batteries required to give these machines their 8 hours of operation. Local incentives can help tip the TCO balance in favor of electric while battery prices are coming down, but in the long term, the combination of fuel savings, reduced emissions and increased performance and precision, will lead to electric machines winning out.
Report MetricsDetails
Historic Data2021 - 2022
CAGRThe electric construction vehicle market is taking off imminently and will grow have a 10-year CAGR of 37%
Forecast Period2023 - 2043
Forecast UnitsUnit sales, revenue (US$), battery demand (GWh)
Regions CoveredWorldwide
Segments CoveredMini-excavators, excavators, backhoe loaders, other loaders, telehandlers, cranes, other construction vehicles.
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Table of Contents
1.1.Report Summary
1.2.Key Report Findings (1)
1.3.Key Report Findings (2)
1.4.Construction Vehicles
1.5.Key Construction Machine Types for Electrification
1.6.Construction Market Continues to Bounce Back
1.7.Top 15 Construction Market Players
1.8.Electrification Activity of Major Construction OEMs (1)
1.9.Electrification Activity of Major Construction OEMs (2)
1.10.Drivers for Construction Vehicle Electrification
1.11.TCO Drivers for Electric Construction Vehicles
1.12.Advantages of / Barriers to Machine Electrification
1.13.Technology Positioning for Construction Equipment
1.14.Performance Advantages of an Electric Excavator
1.15.Battery Capacity and Operation Runtime
1.16.Battery Sizes for Different Vehicle Types
1.17.Options for Meeting Power Duty Cycle Power Demand
1.18.Electric vs Diesel Break-even: Fuel Cost Saving
1.19.Electric vs Diesel Break-even: Fuel + Maintenance
1.20.Battery Price Impact on Break Even Point
1.21.OEM Dealer Electric Retrofitting Partnerships
1.22.Engine Manufacturers Looking Toward Electrification
1.23.Dealer Driven Electrification Development
1.24.Chinese OEMs Large Battery Excavators
1.25.Large Electric Excavator Price Premium (Retrofit)
1.26.Large Electric Excavator Price Premium (OEM)
1.27.Construction Equipment Electrification Opportunities (1)
1.28.Construction Equipment Electrification Opportunities (2)
1.29.EV Construction Machine Sales Forecast by Region
1.30.Global Construction EV Sales Forecast by Machine Type
1.31.EV Construction Machines Battery Demand by Machine Type (GWh)
1.32.EV Construction Machines Market Size by Machine Type (US$ Billions)
2.1.1.Construction Vehicles
2.1.2.Types of Construction Vehicle
2.1.3.Top 15 Construction Market Players
2.1.4.Construction Vehicle Revenue by OEM Region
2.1.5.CO2 Emission Contribution of Construction Machines
2.1.6.CO2 Emissions Driver for Construction Machine Electrification
2.1.7.GHG Emissions: China, US & Europe
2.1.8.Vehicles a Major Source of Greenhouse Gas Emission
2.1.9.Emissions by Construction Machine Type
2.1.10.Urban Air Quality
2.1.11.Construction Worksite Air Quality
2.1.12.Fossil Fuel Bans (Cities)
2.1.13.Emission Standards Target Air Quality not GHG Emission
2.1.14.Drivers for Construction Vehicle Electrification
2.2.Regional & Company Emissions Policy & Case Studies
2.2.1.Norway Pioneering Zero Emission Construction Machines
2.2.2.The Netherlands, Denmark and Finland
2.2.3.Electrifying Construction Sites
2.2.4.Colorado Clean Diesel Program
2.2.5.UK Incentivizing Decarbonization of Off-road
2.2.6.Construction Industry Committing to GHG Reductions
2.2.7.Construction Firms Addressing GHG Emission
2.2.8.Noise Reduction
2.2.9.What do Electric Machines Need to Deliver
2.2.10.Power Demand for Electric Construction Vehicles
2.2.11.Technology Positioning for Construction Equipment
2.2.12.Volvo Group Fossil Fuel Free Timeline
2.2.13.Construction Equipment Electrification Opportunities
2.2.14.Future Opportunities in Electric Mobile Machinery
2.2.15.Mobile Equipment Chargers / Hydrogen Fuelling
2.2.16.Zero Emission Gensets / Microgrids / Energy Storage
2.2.17.Autonomous Systems and Digitalization
3.1.1.Electric Mini-Excavators Summary
3.1.2.Mini Excavators Leading CE Electrification
3.1.3.Performance Advantages of an Electric Excavator
3.1.4.Mini Excavator OEMs
3.1.5.Electric Mini Excavator Example Specifications
3.1.6.Electric Mini Excavator Example Specifications
3.1.7.Mini Excavator: ICE Engine vs Electric Motor Size (kW)
3.1.8.Mini Excavator Size vs Battery Capacity
3.1.9.Example mini-excavator battery sizing and runtime
3.1.10.Battery Capacity and Operation Runtime
3.1.11.Options for Meeting Power Duty Cycle Power Demand
3.1.12.Electric Mini-Excavator Price Premium
3.1.13.ICE Mini-Excavator Fuel Consumption Cost
3.1.14.Electrification Fuel Cost Saving
3.1.15.Electric vs Diesel Break-even: Fuel Cost Saving
3.1.16.Total Cost of Ownership: Maintenance
3.1.17.Cummins' Electric Mini Excavator Analysis
3.1.18.Electric vs Diesel Break-even: Fuel + Maintenance
3.1.19.Incentivising Electric Machines: Low Emission Zones
3.1.20.Incentivizing Through Emissions Charges
3.1.21.Early Electric Machine Deployment: Rental Companies
3.1.22.OEM Dealer Electric Retrofitting Partnerships
3.1.23.Engine Manufacturers Looking Toward Electrification
3.1.24.Electric Mini-Excavators CO2 Emission Saving
3.2.Mini Excavators: OEM Models & Case Studies
3.2.1.Volvo Construction Equipment
3.2.2.Volvo Group
3.2.3.Volvo Expanding their Electric CE Portfolio
3.2.4.Volvo EC55 Electric
3.2.5.Komatsu PC30E-5 Electric Mini-Excavator
3.2.6.Komatsu Remote Controlled Electric Mini Excavator
3.2.7.Komatsu / Honda Micro Electric Excavators
3.2.8.Hyundai Construction Equipment (HCE)
3.2.9.Yanmar Construction Equipment
3.2.10.Yanmar Prototype
3.2.11.Doosan Electric DX17Z-5 Prototype
3.2.12.Develon (previously Doosan) production ready model
3.2.13.Doosan (now Develon) & Bobcat E10e / E19e
3.2.14.JCB E-TECH Electric Mini Excavator
3.2.15.XCMG XE35U_E
3.2.16.Wacker Neuson EZ17e
3.2.17.Takeuchi TB220e
3.2.18.SUNCAR HK 216E / Takeuchi
3.2.19.KTEG ZE19 / Hitachi / Suncar HK
3.2.20.Hitachi Construction Machinery
3.2.22.Caterpillar 301.9
3.2.23.Limach Electric Mini Excavators
3.2.24.Kubota Prototype Mini Excavator
3.2.25.Hybrid Dual Power Diesel-Electric Tethered Excavators
4.1.1.Large Electric Excavators Summary (1)
4.1.2.Large Electric Excavators Summary (2)
4.1.3.Medium / Large Excavator OEMs
4.1.4.Electric Excavators >6t, Summary of Models
4.1.5.Electric Excavators >6t, Summary of Models
4.1.6.Large Electric Excavator Emission / Cost Saving
4.1.7.Excavator (>6t): ICE Engine vs Electric Motor Size (kW)
4.1.8.Examples Battery Capacity and Operational Runtime
4.1.9.Battery Capacity and Operation Runtime >6t Excavators
4.1.10.Annual Fuel Cost Saving Diesel vs Electric Excavators
4.1.11.>6t Excavator CO2 Emission Saving
4.1.12.Dealer Driven Electrification Development
4.1.13.Large Electric Excavator Price Premium (retrofit)
4.1.14.Break-even electric excavator TCO (OEM)
4.2.OEM Models & Case Studies
4.2.1.John Deere - Electric Excavator
4.2.2.Pon Equipment: CAT Zero Emission Excavators
4.2.3.Pon Cat 323F Z-line Power Schematic
4.2.4.Pon Equipment: NextGen Electric Excavators
4.2.5.Next Generation Pon Cat Excavators
4.2.6.Caterpillar 320 Now In-house
4.2.7.Volvo EC230 Electrified Excavator
4.2.8.Volvo R&D: Large Rear Screen
4.2.9.Mecalac e12 Electric Wheeled Excavator
4.2.10.Hidromek HICON 7W
4.2.11.Hyundai Excavator HX260AL Electric
4.2.12.Doosan DX300LC Electric
4.2.13.Doosan Tethered Electric Excavator System
4.2.14.KTEG ZECOM ZE85 Electric Excavator
4.2.15.NASTA ZERON Electric Excavators
4.2.16.NASTA ZERON Electric Excavators
4.2.17.Hitachi ZX85US-6EB and ZX135US-7EB
4.2.18.Liebherr R922 BE Electric Crawler
4.2.19.Limach E88.1 Excavator
4.2.20.Chinese OEMs Large Battery Excavators
4.2.21.LiuGong Excavator
4.2.22.Komatsu Hybrid Hydraulic Excavator
4.2.23.Komatsu PC 210E with a 700kWh battery!
4.2.24.Kobelco SK210H Electric Hybrid
4.2.25.Hydraulic Hybrid Excavators - Not Electric Vehicles
5.1.1.Electric Compact Loaders Summary
5.1.2.Compact Loaders / Skid Steer / Dumpers
5.1.3.Sales of Compact Loaders
5.1.4.Electric Compact Loaders / Dumper Example Specs (1)
5.1.5.Electric Compact Loaders / Dumper Example Specs (2)
5.1.6.Electric Compact Loaders Motor Size (kW)
5.1.7.Electric Loader / Dumper Size vs Battery Capacity
5.1.8.Battery Capacity and Endurance
5.1.9.Electric Compact Loader Price Premium
5.1.10.Fuel Savings
5.1.11.Compact / Skid-steer Loaders OEMs
5.2.OEM Models & Case Studies
5.2.1.Volvo L25 Electric Compact Wheel Loader
5.2.2.Volvo L20 Electric Wheel Loader
5.2.3.Schäffer 24E Electric Wheel Loader
5.2.4.Bobcat (Doosan Group)
5.2.5.Bobcat / Moog: T7X All Electric System
5.2.6.Gehl Electric Skid Steer with Battery Swap
5.2.7.Tobroco-Giant G2200E Wheel Loader
5.2.8.Cat 906 Electric Wheel Loader Concept
5.2.9.JCB 1T-E Electric Site Dumper
5.2.10.AUSA D100AHA Electric Dumper
5.2.11.AUSA D151AEG
5.2.12.Poclain Hydraulics 1.8t Wheel Loader
5.2.13.Avant Techno e Series Loaders
5.2.14.Wacker Neuson WL20e Wheel Loader
5.2.15.Kovaco Elise 900
5.2.16.Kramer 5055e Wheel Loader
5.2.17.Komatsu - Moog
6.1.1.Electric Backhoe Loaders Summary
6.1.2.Backhoe Loaders
6.1.3.Example Electric Backhoes
6.1.4.Fuel Saving Opportunity
6.1.5.Backhoe: ICE Engine Size (kW)
6.1.6.Backhoe Loaders
6.2.OEM Models & Case Studies
6.2.1.CASE Construction: Project Zeus
6.2.2.CASE Construction 580 EV
6.2.3.John Deere 310X-Tier E-Power
6.2.4.Huddig Electric PHEV Backhoe
6.2.5.Huddig 1260T: Hybrid Operating Modes
6.2.6.Huddig Battery / Motor Suppliers
7.1.1.Electric Large Loader Summary
7.1.2.Wheel Loaders
7.1.3.Electric Wheel Loaders (>6t) Examples
7.1.4.Electric X power and weight comparison
7.1.5.Battery Capacity for Wheel Loaders
7.1.6.Electrification Cost and Savings
7.1.7.Savings for Higher Cost Batteries
7.1.8.High Battery Costs and Lower Utilization
7.1.9.Fuel Consumption and Savings
7.1.10.Battery Price Impact on Break Even Point
7.1.11.Many Chinese Electric Loader Models Emerging
7.1.12.Dual Gun Ultra-Fast Charging
7.2.OEM Models & Case Studies
7.2.1.Caterpillar 950GC - Electric Wheel Loader
7.2.2.XCMG XC918-EV Electric Loader
7.2.3.LiuGong 856E-MAX 18.8t Electric Loader
7.2.4.LuiGong 856H-E MAX
7.2.5.Danfoss Editron Full Electric Wheel Loader
7.2.6.Ahlmann AZ 95 Electric Swing Loader
7.2.7.Greenland GEL-5000 Electric Loader
7.2.8.XCMG XC958-EV Electric Loader
7.2.9.Sany SW956E Electric Loader
7.2.10.Volvo L120H Electric Conversion
7.2.11.Volvo Electric Site Research Project
7.2.12.Diesel Electric Hybrid Wheel Loaders
7.2.13.Diesel Electric Hybrid Wheel Loader Examples
7.2.14.Cat 988K XE: Electric Drive Wheel Loader
8.1.1.Electric Telehandlers Summary
8.1.2.Telescopic Handlers
8.1.3.Electric Telehandler Example Specifications
8.1.4.Telehandler: ICE Engine vs Electric Motor Size (kW)
8.1.5.Telehandler battery capacities
8.2.OEM Models & Case Studies
8.2.1.Liebherr Electric Telescopic Handler - DEUTZ
8.2.2.JCB 525-60E Electric Telehandler
8.2.3.JLG Full Electric Telehandler Concept
8.2.4.Manitou Electric Telehandlers
8.2.5.Manitou MTE 625 and MT625e Electric
8.2.6.Faresin / Snorkel Full Electric Telehandler
8.2.7.Faresin: Aliant Battery Assembly
8.2.8.XCMG XC6-2506E Telehandler
9.1.1.Electric Mobile Cranes Summary
9.1.2.Mobile Cranes
9.1.3.Electric Crane Example Specifications
9.1.4.Mobile Cranes
9.2.OEM Models & Case Studies
9.2.1.Liebherr Electric Crawler Cranes
9.2.2.Liebherr LR1250.1 Deployed at HS2 Station Site
9.2.3.Liebherr Electric Crawler Cranes Schematic
9.2.4.Liebherr Expand Range of Electric Crawler - LR1130.1 Unplugged & LR1160.1 Unplugged
9.2.5.Liebherr LTC1050-3.1
9.2.6.PV-E Crane 100% Electric Crawler Cranes
9.2.7.Madea All-Electric Mini Crawler Crane
9.2.8.Zoomlion ZTC250N-EV Electric Truck Crane
9.2.9.Zoomlion ZAT2200VE863 Super Heavy Crane
9.2.10.Sany STC250HBEV Electric Truck Crane
9.2.11.Sany SCE800TB-EV fully electric crawler crane
9.2.12.XCMG XCT25EV and XCA60EV PHEV Truck Cranes
10.1.Other Construction Vehicles
10.2.Liebherr Hybrid Concrete Mixer Truck - Not Electric
10.3.Futuricum Electric Concrete Mixer Truck
10.4.Chinese OEMs Electric Mixer Trucks
10.5.Volvo FMX
10.6.Renault Trucks D Wide Z.E.
10.7.Chinese Battery Swapping Dump Trucks
10.8.Sany Electric Dump Trucks
10.9.BYD Electric Dump Trucks For Shenzhen
10.10.Truck OEMs Commit to Electrification
10.11.Junttan Electric Pile Driving Rig
10.12.Liebherr LB 16 Electric Drilling Rig
10.13.BAM Electric Road Roller
10.14.Electric Asphalt Rollers
10.15.Cat / Medatech Electric Road Grader
10.16.Cat Electric Drive (hybrid) Dozer
11.1.Lithium Battery Chemistry Overview
11.2.Current & Emerging Lithium Batteries Ranked
11.3.The Promise of Silicon
11.4.Silicon Anode Material Opportunities
11.5.Silicon Anode - Company Benchmarking
11.6.LTO Battery Cell Technology
11.7.Battery Requirements in Construction: Performance
11.8.Battery Requirements in Construction: Pricing
11.9.Battery Requirements in Construction: Reliability
11.10.Key Performance Indicators For Construction Battery Systems
11.11.Battery Chemistry Benchmarking for Construction
11.12.LFP or NMC Comparison
11.13.Introduction To Sodium-ion Batteries (Sibs)
11.14.Na-ion vs Other Chemistries
11.15.Cell Chemistry in Construction
11.16.Regional Cell Chemistry Choices
11.17.Cylindrical, Prismatic, Pouch Cell Format Comparison
11.18.Shifts in Cell and Pack Design
11.19.Larger Format 4680 Cylindrical Cells
11.20.Li-ion Batteries: From Cell to Pack
11.21.Heavy Duty Battery Pack Manufacturing Trends
11.22.Battery Pack Materials
11.23.Eliminating the Battery Module
11.24.Battery Enclosure Materials Summary
11.25.Lightweighting Battery Enclosures
11.26.IDTechEx Li-ion Battery Timeline
11.27.Timeline and Outlook for Li-ion Cell Energy Densities
11.28.Li-ion Timeline Commentary
12.2.Akasol AKASYSTEM
12.3.Northvolt Voltpack Core
12.4.Webasto Modular Battery System
12.5.Webasto & ECE - Large Electric Excavator
12.7.Hyperdrive Innovation
12.9.Deutz AG
12.10.Other European Battery Manufacturers
12.11.WATTALPS: Non-Road Mobile Machinery Batteries
12.12.WATTALPS Battery Pack
12.13.Chemistry Choice - Europe and North America
12.14.Chinese Electric Heavy-Duty Battery Suppliers
12.15.Known construction & battery supplier relationships (1)
12.16.Known construction & battery supplier relationships (2)
13.1.Comparison of Traction Motor Construction and Merits
13.2.Summary of Traction Motor Types
13.3.Dana TM4
13.4.Dana E-Axles
13.5.ZF Friedrichshafen AG
13.6.ZF Preferred Electric Drivetrain Architecture
13.7.Danfoss Editron
13.9.Artemis / Danfoss
13.10.Electric Motor Performance Designed to Match ICE
13.11.Electrically Powered Hydraulic Systems
13.12.All-Electric Systems
14.1.Hydrogen for Construction Vehicles?
14.2.Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
14.3.Fuel Cells Technologies Overview
14.4.Attraction of Fuel Cell Vehicles
14.5.Deployment Barriers for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles
14.6.A Kaleidoscope of Hydrogen Colours
14.7.Must be Green H2 for Fuel Cell Machines to be 'Green'
14.8.Battery Electrification More Efficient than Fuel Cell EV
14.9.The Key Challenge: Green Hydrogen Cost Reduction
14.10.Power-to-Liquid Fuels - Terrible Efficiency
14.11.PEMFC Market Players
14.12.Hyundai Fuel Cell Construction Equipment
14.13.Bumhan Industry Fuel Cell Mini-Excavator
14.14.SANY Fuel Cell Construction Machines
14.15.Chinese Fuel Cell Dump Trucks
14.16.Comparison Hydrogen Fuel Cost vs Diesel Cost
14.17.The Cost of Green Hydrogen - Montpellier FCEV Buses
14.18.JCB Hydrogen Combustion Engines
14.19.JCB / Ryze / Fortescue Green Hydrogen Deal
14.20.Fuel Cell Construction Machines
14.21.AVL H2 Combustion Engines
14.23.KEYOU Hydrogen ICE
14.24.Hydrogen Combustion Engines
14.25.Advantages and Disadvantages of BEV, FCEV, H2ICE
14.26.Summary Hydrogen Fuelled Construction Vehicles (1)
14.27.Summary Hydrogen Fuelled Construction Vehicles (2)
15.1.Forecast Methodology (1)
15.2.Forecast Methodology (2)
15.3.Fuel Cells in Construction Commentary
15.4.Other Alternative Powertrains in Construction
15.5.Forecast Assumptions
15.6.Construction vehicle total addressable market
15.7.EV Construction Machine Sales Forecast by Region
15.8.Global Construction EV Sales Forecast by Machine Type
15.9.US Construction EV Sales Forecast by Machine Type
15.10.Europe Construction EV Sales Forecast by Machine Type
15.11.China Construction EV Sales Forecast by Machine Type
15.12.RoW Construction EV Sales Forecast by Machine Type
15.13.EV Construction Machines Battery Demand by machine type (GWh)
15.14.EV Construction Machines Battery Demand by region (GWh)
15.15.EV Construction Machines Market Size by machine type ($USD Billions)
15.16.EV Construction Machines Market Size by region ($USD Billions)

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Slides 396
Forecasts to 2043
ISBN 9781915514660

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