Extended reality optics industry to reach US$ 5.1 billion in 2034.

Optics for Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality 2024-2034: Technologies, Players and Markets

AR combiners including diffractive (surface relief/holographic) and reflective (geometric) waveguides, birdbath and freespace holographic combiners. Lenses for VR including pancake and geometric phase lenses, and AR prescription correction.

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This report characterizes the optics industry, analyzing markets, technologies and players. It provides in-depth coverage of 13 individual optics technologies and forecasts their uptake in spatial computing from 2024 to 2034, alongside 10-year forecasts for the entire VR, AR and MR headset market. It outlines growing opportunity, with the VR, AR and MR optics market forecast to grow to US$5.1bn by 2034.
VR (Virtual Reality) devices replace the real environment with the virtual, whereas AR (Augmented Reality) headsets optically overlay content on top of the real world. Some of these devices can deliver MR (Mixed Reality) experiences, with overlaid virtual content interacting with real objects. Collectively, these concepts are referred to as XR (eXtended Reality) or spatial computing. Apple's Vision Pro has brought new excitement to this space, gaming-focused VR devices from Meta and others including Pico and Sony have sold in the millions, and AR devices from Vuzix, Microsoft and more have found a valuable place in industry.
However, the specialized optics required by AR headsets have so far proved to be a stumbling block for the industry. In VR headsets, there is rapidly growing usage of unconventional lens types to solve the deficiencies of the Fresnel lens architectures that previously dominated. For AR, an industry of specialized, often fabless, optics firms has sprung up, offering a diverse range of technologies to headset manufacturers that are just as active in this space. Optics are a key enabling technology for spatial computing, driving substantial innovation and growth in the XR optics industry, which is expected to grow at a CAGR of 23% from 2024 to 2034.
Major choices of AR optical combiner
Major choices of lens for VR
The report covers optical combiners and waveguides for AR and lenses for VR, with additional focus placed on prescription correction and encapsulation for waveguides, and the specialized optical materials industry supporting these technologies. Key themes across all technologies, including the maximization of field of view and eyebox, solving the vergence-accommodation conflict, and efforts to improve color rendition are discussed and compared. The activities of headset firms and ecosystem enablers, the demands of end users and other wider market forces are highlighted. The technologies likely to dominate the market are identified with extensive justification, providing a clear sense of future industry development.
Thirteen distinct classes of XR optical technology are analyzed in detail, including surface relief grating diffractive waveguides, holographic waveguides, reflective waveguides, birdbath combiners, Fresnel lenses, pancake lenses and geometric phase lens arrays. This analysis includes:
  • In-depth technological and market discussion, tracking innovations, trends and players. Includes market case studies.
  • Benchmarking on 12 technological and commercial factors.
  • Application suitability analysis for narrow or wide FoV AR or VR headsets depending on technology class.
  • 10-year forecasts for adoption, units sold, and revenue for each technology in VR and narrow/wide FoV AR.
Additionally, overall forecasts from 2024-2034 for the VR and AR headset industries that form the market for these display technologies are provided, alongside historical data. Furthermore, high-level demand forecasts for specialized optical materials to serve this market are provided, with key potential opportunities provided. Conclusions on the evolving future of the XR optics market are identified.
This report forms part of IDTechEx's wider XR portfolio, including "Displays for Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality", "Virtual Reality & Augmented Reality Headsets" and "Micro-LED Displays". It updates the already-comprehensive 2022 edition of the report with even deeper market insight into this rapidly changing industry, including a substantial improvement to benchmarking methodology, analysis of the rapid rise of pancake lenses in VR, and expanded discussion of waveguide manufacturing processes and prescription correction in AR.
IDTechEx's methodology involved extensive primary and secondary research with a key focus on interviewing executives and engineers within the display and wider XR ecosystems, in addition to attendance of major conferences including CES, SID Display Week, Laval Virtual and AWE Europe. It provides over 30 company profiles as well as further case studies of important developments in the XR optics world.
Unique position and experience behind this report
IDTechEx has been covering the VR, AR and MR industry since 2015, staying close to the technical and market developments, interviewing key players worldwide, attending numerous conferences and delivering multiple consulting projects. IDTechEx's long history within this area has provided it a unique ability to curate a network within this space, bolstering its analysis in this report.
Our report assesses the VR, AR and MR optics market in detail, evaluating the different constituent technologies, potential adoption barriers, and the difficulties of competing in this crowded space. We also develop granular 10-year market forecasts and assessments of the potential for success of the technologies covered, as well as supporting high-level material demands. This analysis includes:
Technology trends & player analysis
  • An introduction to the VR, AR and MR headset market, including analysis of key trends, expected market entrance from major players and assessment of the competitive landscape.
  • Introduction to the optical requirements of XR devices, including the differences between categories of device.
  • For thirteen distinct optical combiner and lens technologies, technological background, expected innovations, analysis of important players, overview of the ecosystem. Discussion of further technologies also included.
  • Over 30 company profiles included including interviews.
  • Updates from conferences in 2023, including AWE Europe, SID Display Week, Laval Virtual and CES.
Market Forecasts & Analysis
  • 10-year granular market volume and revenue forecasts for the following, including basis in historical data and narratives-Overall headset market (VR including MR-capable devices, AR including MR-capable devices).
  • Combiners for AR, split into 9 classes of technology. AR devices are divided into narrow vs wide field of view.
  • Lenses for VR, split into 4 different technologies.
  • 10-year forecast of high-level material demands for specialized optical materials, with key opportunities identified.
Benchmarking of the above optics technologies on 12 commercial and technological factors, with quantitative application fitness assessment for narrow and wide FoV AR devices, and VR headsets.
Report MetricsDetails
Historic Data2020 - 2023
CAGRThe global market for XR optics will reach USD 5.1 billion in 2034, representing a CAGR of 23% compared to 2024.
Forecast Period2024 - 2034
Forecast UnitsHeadset units, adoption proportions, revenue (USD million), mass (kg), volume (m3)
Regions CoveredWorldwide
Segments CoveredHeadsets (VR, AR categorized by field of view), optics technologies, optical materials
Analyst access from IDTechEx
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Table of Contents
1.1.Optics and AR/MR/VR devices
1.2.VR, AR, MR and XR as experiences
1.3.Segmenting devices: VR vs AR
1.4.Classifying headsets
1.5.Apple's Vision Pro and re-evaluation of XR
1.6.The rise of passthrough MR in VR headsets
1.7.XR headsets: State of the market in 2023
1.8.The outlook for XR: Comparing the VR and AR markets
1.9.Optical requirements for XR
1.10.Motivation - why are XR optics important?
1.11.AR vs VR optics: Development status and design considerations
1.12.XR headsets: Optical technology choices
1.13.Technology landscape: Optical combiners for AR
1.14.Optical combiners: Definition and classification
1.15.Waveguides vs other combiner types
1.16.AR combiners: Promising technological candidates
1.17.Status and market potential of optical combiners
1.18.Benchmarking criteria for AR combiners (I): Commercial factors
1.19.Benchmarking criteria (II): Technological factors
1.20.Attribute importance in wide vs narrow FoV devices
1.21.Narrow FoV AR benchmark performance
1.22.Wide FoV AR benchmark performance
1.23.Wide FoV AR combiner technology forecast (adoption proportions)
1.24.Narrow FoV AR combiner technology forecast (adoption proportions)
1.25.AR combiner forecasts: Overall summary
1.26.AR combiner technology players
1.27.AR: Prescription correction for waveguides
1.28.AR combiners: Key technological takeaways
1.29.The VR optics technology landscape
1.30.Technological status of VR lens technologies
1.31."Generations" of VR lens
1.32.VR lens benchmark performance
1.33.VR lens technology forecast (adoption proportions)
1.34.VR lens forecasts: Overall summary
1.35.Lens technology players: VR and ancillary AR lenses
1.36.Optics revenue forecasts
1.37.VR lenses: Key technological takeaways
2.1.Introduction to XR
2.1.1.VR, AR, MR and XR as experiences
2.1.2.Segmenting devices: VR vs AR
2.1.3.Classifying headsets
2.1.4.AR, MR, VR and XR: A brief history
2.1.5.The 2010s to date - the age of XR begins
2.1.6.Passthrough MR in VR devices
2.1.7.XR Market Development
2.1.8.The VR market is consolidating
2.1.9.Applications in VR, AR & MR
2.1.10.The metaverse as a driver for XR development
2.1.11.XR devices and the metaverse
2.1.12.Industry 4.0 and XR
2.1.13.VR/AR solutions for Industry 4.0
2.1.14.Apple's Vision Pro and re-evaluation of XR
2.1.15.Old terminology: PC-, standalone and smartphone XR
2.1.16.Updating terminology: Standalone vs tethered
2.1.17.AR: Defining terminology (I)
2.1.18.AR: Defining terminology (II)
2.1.19.Consumer AR headsets: A rocky history
2.1.20.Consumer AR devices face tough competition
2.1.21.AR headsets as a replacement for other smart devices
2.1.22.AR as the end goal
2.1.23.VR headsets: Selected players
2.1.24.AR headsets: Selected players
2.1.25.Potential Big Tech entries to the AR market (I)
2.1.26.Potential Big Tech entries to the AR market (II)
2.1.27.The outlook for XR: Comparing the VR and AR markets
2.2.Introduction to XR optics
2.2.1.Optical requirements for XR
2.2.2.Pairing optics with displays
2.2.3.AR vs VR optics: Development status and design considerations
2.2.4.Optical engines: Combining displays and optics in XR
2.2.5.Field of view defines XR experiences
2.2.6.An immersive experience requires a wide field of view (FoV) - but is this always necessary?
2.2.7.Eyebox and eye relief: Keys to XR usability
2.2.8.Measuring brightness and efficiency
2.2.9.No free lunches: Etendue, FoV and eyebox
2.2.10.Resolution, FoV, and pixel density
2.2.11.Foveated rendering and displays: Higher display quality at reduced resolution for both VR and AR
2.2.12.The vergence-accommodation conflict
2.2.13.Contrast and dynamic range: The same but different
2.2.14.How do display requirements differ between AR and VR?
2.2.15.Optical aberrations present design challenges
2.2.16.Optic coatings in VR and AR
2.2.17.Optical combiners for AR
2.2.18.Choices of AR optic
2.2.19.Choices of VR optic
2.2.20.Summary: XR optical design is a complex balancing act
3.1.Forecasting methodology
3.1.1.VR headset forecasting: Important data sources
3.1.2.AR headset forecasting: Important data sources
3.1.3.Methodology - device and display forecasts
3.1.4.AR and VR headsets: State of the market
3.2.Headset market forecasts
3.2.1.AR: Historic device sales
3.2.2.What is not considered in forecasting
3.2.3.AR headsets: Revenue
3.2.4.AR headsets: Headset volume
3.2.5.VR: Historic device sales
3.2.6.Cyclic nature of VR hardware sales
3.2.7.VR headsets: Revenue
3.2.8.VR headsets: Headset volume
3.3.Market forecasts: Optical combiners for AR
3.3.1.A reminder on AR market segmentation
3.3.2.The future of combiner technology
3.3.3.Manufacturability of waveguides - why is this expected to change?
3.3.4.Why reflective waveguides are likely dominate for immersive consumer AR
3.3.5.Non-waveguide combiners - what does the future hold?
3.3.6.Forecasting adoption proportion for AR combiner technologies
3.3.7.Wide FoV AR combiner technology forecast (adoption proportions)
3.3.8.Narrow FoV AR combiner technology forecast table (adoption proportions by technology)
3.3.9.Wide FoV AR combiner technology forecast (headset volume)
3.3.10.Wide FoV AR combiner technology forecast table (headset units by technology)
3.3.11.Wide FoV AR combiner technology forecast (revenue)
3.3.12.Wide FoV AR combiner technology forecast table (combiner revenue by technology)
3.3.13.Narrow FoV AR combiner technology forecast (adoption proportions)
3.3.14.Narrow FoV AR combiner technology forecast table (adoption proportions by technology)
3.3.15.Narrow FoV AR combiner technology forecast (headset volume)
3.3.16.Narrow FoV AR combiner technology forecast table (headset units by technology)
3.3.17.Narrow FoV AR combiner technology forecast (revenue)
3.3.18.Narrow FoV AR combiner technology forecast table (combiner revenue by technology)
3.3.19.Total AR combiner technology forecast (adoption proportions)
3.3.20.Total AR combiner technology forecast table (adoption proportions by technology)
3.3.21.Total AR combiner technology forecast (headset volume)
3.3.22.Total AR combiner technology forecast table (headset units by technology)
3.3.23.Total AR combiner revenue forecast
3.3.24.Total AR combiner technology forecast table (combiner revenue by technology)
3.3.25.Status and market potential of optical combiners
3.3.26.AR combiner forecasts: Overall summary
3.4.Market forecasts: Lenses for VR
3.4.1.VR lens forecasting justification
3.4.2.Pancake lenses: From niche to standard
3.4.3."Generations" of VR lens
3.4.4.VR lens technology forecast (adoption proportions)
3.4.5.VR lens technology forecast table (adoption proportions)
3.4.6.VR lens technology forecast (headset volume)
3.4.7.VR lens technology forecast table (headset volume containing optic)
3.4.8.VR lens revenue forecast
3.4.9.VR lens revenue forecast table
3.4.10.Technological status of VR lens technologies
3.4.11.VR lens forecasts: Overall summary
3.5.High level optical material forecasts
3.5.1.Material requirement forecasting methodology
3.5.2.Methodology - material forecasting
3.5.3.Material forecasts (volume): AR combiners (wide and narrow FoV combined)
3.5.4.Material forecasts (mass): AR combiners (wide and narrow FoV combined)
3.5.5.Material forecasts (volume): AR combiners (wide and narrow FoV combined)
3.5.6.Material forecasts (mass): AR combiners (wide and narrow FoV combined)
3.5.7.AR combiners: Identifying material opportunities (I)
3.5.8.AR combiners: Identifying material opportunities (II)
3.5.9.Material forecasts (volume): VR lenses
3.5.10.Material forecasts (mass): VR lenses
3.5.11.Material forecasts (volume): VR lenses
3.5.12.Material forecasts (mass): VR lenses
3.5.13.Material forecasting: Assumptions for geometric phase lens arrays
3.5.14.VR lenses: Identifying material opportunities (I)
3.5.15.VR lenses: Identifying material opportunities (II)
3.5.16.Conclusions: Key material opportunities in AR/VR
3.5.17.Advanced optical plastics - high volume with clear opportunities for innovation
3.5.18.Liquid crystal photopolymer materials - specialized materials for a new paradigm in optics
3.5.19.Photopolymers - enabling low-cost AR
4.1.1.Optical combiners for AR
4.1.2.Optical combiners: Definition and classification
4.1.3.Waveguides vs other combiner types
4.1.4.AR combiner technology players
4.2.Waveguide combiners
4.2.1.Common waveguide architectures
4.2.2.Common waveguide architectures: Operating principle and device examples
4.2.3.Projector entry to waveguides
4.2.4.Exit pupil expansion/replication makes headsets more usable and compact at the cost of efficiency
4.2.5.Exit pupil expansion in waveguides
4.2.6.Transmission and eye glow - measures of AR's social acceptability
4.2.7.Waveguide substrate materials: Why refractive index matters
4.2.8.Comparing glass suppliers for waveguide substrates
4.2.9.Waveguide substrate materials: Glass vs polymers
4.2.10.Matching substrates with waveguide designs
4.2.11.Weight minimization in waveguides
4.2.12.Comparison between waveguide methodologies
4.2.13.Big Tech and AR: Focus on diffractive waveguides
4.2.14.Big Tech and AR: What about Meta?
4.2.15.Strategies in waveguide combiner supply
4.2.16.Diffractive waveguides
4.2.17.Introduction: Diffractive waveguides
4.2.18.Diffractive waveguides: Method of operation
4.2.19.Challenges of handling multiple colors with diffractive waveguides
4.2.20.Surface relief gratings (SRG)
4.2.21.Introduction: Surface relief grating waveguides
4.2.22.Grating structures in SRG waveguides
4.2.23.Manufacturing techniques for surface relief grating waveguides
4.2.24.Manufacturing techniques for SRG waveguides: The next step
4.2.25.Case study: Morphotonics and plate-scale NIL
4.2.26.Manufacturing techniques for SRG waveguides: The next step
4.2.27.Alternatives to nano-imprint lithography with spin coated resins
4.2.28.Alternatives to nanoimprint lithography with spin coated resins
4.2.29.The index matching problem for surface relief waveguides
4.2.30.Direct etching for SRGs
4.2.31.Surface relief diffractive waveguides in Microsoft's HoloLens 2: Ambitious design, unfortunate issues
4.2.32.Microsoft's butterfly waveguide combiner for FoV expansion
4.2.33.Magic Leap's headsets and the synergy between LCoS and SRG diffractive waveguides
4.2.34.SRG waveguides in narrow FoV devices
4.2.35.Diffractive Waveguides (SRG): SWOT Analysis
4.2.36.Holographic gratings
4.2.37.Introduction: Holographic grating waveguides
4.2.38.The first commercial holographic waveguide: The Sony SED-100A
4.2.39.Fabricating volume holographic waveguides
4.2.40.DigiLens' manufacturing process
4.2.41.DigiLens Argo and the commercial status of holographic waveguides in 2023
4.2.42.Switchable holographic waveguides for resolution expansion
4.2.43.Holographic Diffractive Waveguides: SWOT Analysis
4.2.44.Reflective waveguides
4.2.45.Introduction: Reflective waveguides
4.2.46.Manufacturing glass reflective waveguides
4.2.47.Plastic reflective waveguides
4.2.48.Diversity in reflective waveguide designs
4.2.49.Lumus as a front runner in reflective waveguides
4.2.50.Reflective waveguides: Development potential
4.2.51.Reflective Waveguides: SWOT Analysis
4.3.Non-waveguide combiners
4.3.1.Simple reflective combiners
4.3.2.Introduction: Simple reflective combiners
4.3.3.Birdbath optics: Weapon of choice for lower-cost AR
4.3.4.Prism-based birdbath optics
4.3.5.Simplicity in AR: Freeform mirrors
4.3.6.Bugeye combiners: Large-scale freeform mirrors
4.3.7.Birdbath combiners: SWOT analysis
4.3.8.Freeform mirror combiners: SWOT analysis
4.3.9.Bugeye combiners (aka large freeform mirror combiners): SWOT analysis
4.3.10.Freespace holographic optical element (HOE) combiners
4.3.11.Introduction: Freespace holographic optical element (HOE) combiners
4.3.12.HOE freespace combiners: Trouble taking off?
4.3.13.HOE combiners: SWOT analysis
4.4.Optical combiners: Technology benchmarking
4.4.1.Introduction to combiner benchmarking
4.4.2.Benchmarking criteria (I): Commercial factors
4.4.3.Benchmarking criteria (II): Technological factors
4.4.4.Benchmark scores: AR combiners
4.4.5.Comparing glass waveguides
4.4.6.Non-waveguide combiners vs waveguides
4.4.7.Glass vs plastic substrates in diffractive waveguides
4.4.8.Glass vs plastic substrates in reflective waveguides
4.4.9.Ranking the performance of optical combiners
4.4.10.Attribute importance in wide vs narrow FoV devices
4.4.11.Narrow FoV AR benchmark performance
4.4.12.Wide FoV AR benchmark performance
4.4.13.AR combiner benchmarking: Conclusions to inform forecasting
4.5.Encapsulation and prescription correction in AR
4.5.1.Approaches to prescription correction in today's AR devices
4.5.2.Future approaches to prescription correction: User-customization
4.5.3.Why encapsulate waveguides with lenses?
4.5.4.Ancillary lenses fill gaps in waveguide capabilities
4.5.5.Static accommodation adjustment
4.5.6.Prescription correction: 3D printing offers an elegant solution
4.5.7.Meta, Luxexcel and AddOptics: The waveguide encapsulation market in flux
4.5.8.Correcting the vergence-accommodation conflict
4.5.9.Deep Optics and liquid crystal GRIN-kinoform lenses
4.5.10.Summary: Encapsulation and prescription correction in AR
5.1.1.The VR optics technology landscape
5.1.2.Lenses in VR
5.1.3."Generations" of VR lens
5.2.Dioptric lenses
5.2.1.Fresnel lenses: The old standard in VR lenses
5.2.2.Meta's patented hybrid Fresnel lens
5.2.3.Other approaches to god ray mitigation
5.2.4.Fresnel doublets
5.2.5.Users modifying headsets
5.2.6.Aspherical lenses at the high end in VR
5.2.7.Fresnel lenses: SWOT analysis
5.2.8.Aspherical lenses: SWOT analysis
5.3.Catadioptric lenses
5.3.1.What are pancake lenses?
5.3.2.Pancake lenses: From niche to standard
5.3.3.Comparing pancake vs Fresnel lens designs
5.3.4.Artefacts in pancake vs Fresnel lenses
5.3.5.Pancake lenses and new design possibilities
5.3.6.Pancake lenses and the future of VR
5.3.7.Other catadioptric lens designs
5.3.8.Polarization-based pancake lenses: SWOT analysis
5.4.Focus-tunable lenses
5.4.1.Why is dynamically variable focus important for XR?
5.4.2.Emerging lens technologies by TRL
5.4.3.Solutions to the vergence-accommodation conflict for XR
5.4.4.SWOT: VA conflict workarounds
5.4.5.SWOT: Dynamic optics (focus tunable lenses)
5.4.6.SWOT: "True 3D" displays
5.4.7."True 3D" displays
5.4.8.Overview: "True 3D" displays as key competitors to focus-tunable lenses
5.4.9.Light field displays: Reconstructing scenes from multiple viewpoints
5.4.10.Avoiding the resolution limit: Sequential light field displays
5.4.11.Case study: CREAL's light field near-eye displays
5.4.12.Holography: Reconstructing wavefronts
5.4.13.Computer-generated holography: Digital hologram generation
5.4.14.VividQ: Holographic displays for AR
5.4.15.Summary: "True 3D" displays as competitors to focus-tunable lenses
5.4.16.Geometric/Pancharatnam-Berry phase lenses
5.4.17.Introduction to geometric phase lenses
5.4.18.Flat lenses: Diffractive optics, metasurfaces, liquid crystals and more
5.4.19.Why geometric phase lenses matter
5.4.20.What is geometric (Pancharatnam-Berry) phase?
5.4.21.Optically anisotropic materials and GPLs
5.4.22.Liquid crystals and switchable waveplates
5.4.23.Liquid crystals in GPLs
5.4.24.Metasurfaces: Another method to apply geometric phase
5.4.25.Introduction to optical meta-surfaces
5.4.26.Harvard: Manufacturing optical metamaterials
5.4.27.Harvard: Applications for metalenses/metasurfaces
5.4.28.MetaLenz: Metasurfaces for distributing light and imaging
5.4.29.MetaLenz: Manufacturing metasurfaces via semiconductor fabrication
5.4.30.Metamaterial Technologies develop rolling mask lithography
5.4.31.Meta's GPL prototypes
5.4.32.The vision for GPL use in headsets
5.4.33.Geometric phase lenses for VR and AR: Production methods
5.4.34.Other focus tunable lenses
5.4.35.Tunable liquid crystal lenses
5.4.36.Meta: Various approaches to solving the VAC
5.4.37.Alvarez lenses
5.4.38.Summary: Focus tunable lenses
5.5.VR lenses: Technology benchmarking
5.5.1.Introduction to VR lens benchmarking
5.5.2.Benchmarking criteria (I): Commercial factors
5.5.3.Benchmarking criteria (II): Technological factors
5.5.4.Benchmark scores: VR lenses
5.5.5.Comparing overall lens performance
5.5.6.Ranking the performance of optical lenses
5.5.7.Attribute importance in VR devices
5.5.8.VR lens benchmark performance
5.5.9.VR lens benchmarking: Conclusions to inform forecasting
6.2.Addoptics: 2023 Update
6.3.Cambridge Mechatronics
6.4.Deep Optics
6.7.HTC Vive
6.9.Kura Technologies
6.10.Lenovo: The ThinkReality A3
6.13.Limbak: Acquired by Apple?
6.16.Luxexcel Acquired by Meta
6.18.Lynx - Q2 2022 Update
6.19.Meta (VR Optics)
6.21.Mira Reality
6.22.Mira Reality: Acquired by Apple
6.23.Mojo Vision
6.27.Schott AG: Augmented/Mixed Reality Operations
6.28.Sony (CES 2023)
6.29.TruLife Optics
6.32.VividQ and Dispelix: Pairing Holographic Displays with Waveguides
6.33.VividQ: Visit and Tech Demo

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Optics for Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality 2024-2034: Technologies, Players and Markets

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Slides 340
Forecasts to 2034
Published Nov 2023
ISBN 9781915514981

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